Urban Problems and Community Development

الغلاف الأمامي
Ronald F. Ferguson, William T. Dickens
Brookings Institution Press, 01‏/01‏/2011 - 642 من الصفحات

In recent years, concerned governments, businesses, and civic groups have launched ambitious programs of community development designed to halt, and even reverse, decades of urban decline. But while massive amounts of effort and money are being dedicated to improving the inner-cities, two important questions have gone unanswered: Can community development actually help solve long-standing urban problems? And, based on social science analyses, what kinds of initiatives can make a difference? This book surveys what we currently know and what we need to know about community development's past, current, and potential contributions. The authors--economists, sociologists, political scientists, and a historian--define community development broadly to include all capacity building (including social, intellectual, physical, financial, and political assets) aimed at improving the quality of life in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods. The book addresses the history of urban development strategies, the politics of resource allocation, business and workforce development, housing, community development corporations, informal social organizations, schooling, and public security.

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الصفحة 259 - ... difficulties in a personal manner without making arrests. These two conceptions are in a large measure contradictory. The policeman who takes a strictly legalistic view of his duties cuts himself off from the personal relations necessary to enable him to serve as a mediator of disputes in his area. The policeman who develops close ties with local people is unable to act against them with the vigor prescribed by the law.
الصفحة 239 - Physical capital is wholly tangible, being embodied in observable material form; human capital is less tangible, being embodied in the skills and knowledge acquired by an individual; social capital is even less tangible, for it is embodied in the relations among persons.
الصفحة 239 - ... features of social organization, such as networks, norms, and trust, that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit.
الصفحة 163 - Community organizing involves mobilizing people to combat common problems and to increase their voice in institutions and decisions that affect their lives and communities. Community-based development involves neighborhood-based efforts to improve an area's physical and economic condition, such as the construction or rehabilitation of housing and the creation of jobs and business enterprises. Communitybased service provision involves neighborhood-level efforts to deliver social services...
الصفحة 258 - Wallace (1990) argue based on an analysis of the "planned shrinkage" of New York City fire and health services in recent decades: "The consequences of withdrawing municipal services from poor neighborhoods, the resulting outbreaks of contagious urban decay and forced migration which shred essential social networks and cause social disintegration, have become a highly significant contributor to decline in public health among the poor
الصفحة 238 - Janowitz (1974, 329) call the "systemic" model, where the local community is viewed as a complex system of friendship and kinship networks, and formal and informal associational ties are rooted in family life and ongoing socialization processes (see also Sampson 1991).
الصفحة 234 - Urban minorities have been particularly vulnerable to structural economic changes, such as the shift from goods-producing to service-producing industries, the increasing polarization of the labor market into low-wage and highwage sectors, technological innovations, and the relocation of manufacturing industries out of the central cities.

نبذة عن المؤلف (2011)

William T. Dickens, a senior fellow in the Economics Studies program at the Brookings Institution, was previously a senior economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisers and professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley. Ronald F. Ferguson has taught at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government since 1983 and is senior research associate at Harvard's Wiener Center for Social Policy.

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