Urban Problems and Community Development
In recent years, concerned governments, businesses, and civic groups have launched ambitious programs of community development designed to halt, and even reverse, decades of urban decline. But while massive amounts of effort and money are being dedicated to improving the inner-cities, two important questions have gone unanswered: Can community development actually help solve long-standing urban problems? And, based on social science analyses, what kinds of initiatives can make a difference? This book surveys what we currently know and what we need to know about community development's past, current, and potential contributions. The authors--economists, sociologists, political scientists, and a historian--define community development broadly to include all capacity building (including social, intellectual, physical, financial, and political assets) aimed at improving the quality of life in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods. The book addresses the history of urban development strategies, the politics of resource allocation, business and workforce development, housing, community development corporations, informal social organizations, schooling, and public security.
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... much of the housing stock is inadequate , schools are poor , it is difficult to get business investment in the areas , and political participation is weak . Fortunately , experience shows that problems are not intractable .
Political participation is weak , voter turnout is low . Decentralization of political and economic power away from cities and inner suburbs exacerbates these conditions , which are compounded by racial and other forms of discrimination ...
16 Along each row numbers represent the percentage of CDCs in the column ( FTE category ) that participate in the activity . Table 1-1 includes twenty activities under eight major headings , of which housing , commercial or industrial ...
Percentage of Neighborhood - Based Urban CDCs Participating in Activities , by Category and Full - Time Equivalent ... 2 7 8 12 22 21 37 8 Any business development role for nonowner / operator CDCS 8 13 17 17 13 8 11 11 participation .
... of basic guiding concepts — including comprehensiveness , coordination , collaboration , and community participation — and then use a wide range of organizational approaches and programmatic strategies to achieve positive change .