Urban Problems and Community Development
In recent years, concerned governments, businesses, and civic groups have launched ambitious programs of community development designed to halt, and even reverse, decades of urban decline. But while massive amounts of effort and money are being dedicated to improving the inner-cities, two important questions have gone unanswered: Can community development actually help solve long-standing urban problems? And, based on social science analyses, what kinds of initiatives can make a difference? This book surveys what we currently know and what we need to know about community development's past, current, and potential contributions. The authors--economists, sociologists, political scientists, and a historian--define community development broadly to include all capacity building (including social, intellectual, physical, financial, and political assets) aimed at improving the quality of life in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods. The book addresses the history of urban development strategies, the politics of resource allocation, business and workforce development, housing, community development corporations, informal social organizations, schooling, and public security.
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Robert Sampson explains in chapter 6 that since the social - structural aspects of community vary from one place to another , the definition should include no specific stipulations about social structures or relationships .
... shared understandings , trust , and other factors that make relationships feasible and productive ; financial capital ( in standard forms ) ; and political capital , which provides the capacity to exert political influence .
Or , for a job placement agency that serves a particular neighborhood , building relationships with suburban employers is development because it increases the intellectual and social assets that the agency can use to supply job ...
The principle of comprehensiveness addresses the full range of circumstances , opportunities , and needs of individuals and families living in CCI neighborhoods and the relationships among them . " The report later comments ...
Clearly , the organizations with high compliance with all the tenets are more central to the movement , but all eight types are involved in developing relationships and other assets that strengthen communities .