Urban Problems and Community Development
In recent years, concerned governments, businesses, and civic groups have launched ambitious programs of community development designed to halt, and even reverse, decades of urban decline. But while massive amounts of effort and money are being dedicated to improving the inner-cities, two important questions have gone unanswered: Can community development actually help solve long-standing urban problems? And, based on social science analyses, what kinds of initiatives can make a difference? This book surveys what we currently know and what we need to know about community development's past, current, and potential contributions. The authors--economists, sociologists, political scientists, and a historian--define community development broadly to include all capacity building (including social, intellectual, physical, financial, and political assets) aimed at improving the quality of life in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods. The book addresses the history of urban development strategies, the politics of resource allocation, business and workforce development, housing, community development corporations, informal social organizations, schooling, and public security.
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... 5.44 6.15 6.83 7.46 7.39 8.33 9.63 6.35 Number of CDCs in urban neighborhood sample 206 156 60 41 32 24 19 538 Source : Authors ' calculations using NCCED Third National Community Development Census , data collected 1994 . a .
... 4.5 22.4 27.7 San Diego 2498 1111 25.6 26.8 49.2 40.7 Phoenix 2122 983 35.2 24.5 85.8 58.3 Denver 1848 468 -4.3 -5.1 55.6 22.6 Source: Compiled from th e U.S. decennial census by Frey 11993), as abbreviated from U.S. Congress, Office.
It should use as many private sources of financial support as possible to protect it from reduced federal commitment in the future . And it should emphasize jobs , community participation , and comprehensive planning .
... with all the elements that W. Richard Scott describes in this defining passage : " [ An organizational field includes ] critical exchange partners , sources of funding , regulatory groups , professional or trade associations ...
Accordingly , Clavel , Pitt , and Yin ( 1997 ) , note 1 , cite other sources in the literature where this definition can be found . 36 / Ronald F. Ferguson and Sara E. Stoutland or Reconceiving the Community Development Field / 35.