صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

his congregation had collected for foreign missions, 3.; for educational schemes, 31. Os. 6d.; Mr. Anderson intimated that 41. 10s. had been collected in his church for

the schools; that the Foreign Missions would

be assisted out of the funds of the Congregational Association, when the same had been ascertained; Mr. Edwards, that 16s. 10d. had been appropriated for the Home Mission; Mr. Gillespie, that 30s. for the same cause; Mr. Huie, that 31. for the schools, and 17. 15s. for Foreign Missions; Mr. Thomson, St. James's Church, Alnwick, that 31. for Foreign Missions; and Dr. Hutchison, that 21. for Home Missions. Mr. Davison, Elder in St. James's Church, Alnwick, compeared and requested the Presbytery to appoint an early day for the induction of the Rev. J. Thompson to the pastoral charge of that congregation. It was agreed that said induction take place on Wednesday, 15th October, Mr. Gillespie to serve the edict on 21st inst., Mr. Hoy to commence the service, Mr. Anderson to preach, Mr. Lennie to ask the questions, Mr. Blythe to address the minister, Dr. Hutchison the people, and Mr. M'Clymont to conclude. A Presbyterial certificate for Mr. Gibb, of Thropton, being drawn, was read over and approved, and ordered to be signed by the Clerk, and sent to Mr. Gibb. The Moderator, having left the chair, and the same having been taken by Mr. Hoy, pro tem., rose to make the motion of which he had given notice, "That the Presbytery resolve to hold one additional Meeting in the year specially for the purpose of devotional exercises and conference upon ministerial work." To this motion, seconded by Mr. M'Clymont, and supported by Messrs. Blythe, Anderson, and others, the Presbytery cordially agreed. Said Meeting to be held on the last Wednesday in June. Dr. Hutchison moved that the roll of members be called at every regular Meeting; absent members to pay a fine of 3s. if no adequate reason be adduced. Agreed. The Presbytery agreed that the next half-yearly Meeting be held in St. James's Church, Alnwick, on the last Wednesday in March, 1846. The Presbytery then adjourned to meet at Morpeth on the following day in the Manse at eleven o'clock.

MORPETH.-On Thursday, Sept. 18, 1845, an adjourned Meeting of Presbytery being held here, was duly constituted. Mr. McLymont, the Moderator, Messrs. Blythe, Trotter, Hutchison, Hoy, M'Clymont, Anderson, Edwards, Gillespie, Lennie, and the Clerk, with Mr. Hood, Elder. In regard to Blythe, the Presbytery appointed Mr. Gillespie to moderate in a call at the request of the congregation on Sabbath 28th inst. In the minutes of the Meeting of Presbytery, held at Felton, on 17th September, it was omitted that the Moderator preached from Rom. viii. 9. The Presbytery then proceeded to the church for the purpose of the induction of the Rev. James Anderson.

[We have received from another Correspondent the following Report of the proceedings connected with Mr. Anderson's induction.-ED.]

MORPETH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.-The induction of the Rev. James Anderson, A.M., formerly Minister of the Free Church of St. Fergus, Aberdeenshire, into the pastoral charge of this Church took place on September the 18th. The services on this occasion were conducted by the Presbytery of Northumberland. The Rev. A. Hoy commenced the services. The Rev. Mr. Lennie of Glenton, preached the sermon from Philemon ver. 10, the Rev. Mr. Huie offered up the induction prayer. The Rev. Mr. Blythe, sen., father of

the Presbytery, and who has been for upwards of fifty years a minister in the Presbyterian Church in England, gave the charge to the minister. It was truly impressive and affecting to hear this venerable and aged

tuted by Johannes Ronge, and J. Czersky, on occasion of the Pilgrimage to the Holy Coat at Treves.-By SAMUEL LAING, Esq. London: Longman, 1845.

The Apostolic Christians, or Catholic Church of Germany. A Narrative of the present Movement in the Roman Catholic Church, comprising authentic_Documents, &c. &c. Edited by HENRY SMITH, Esq., with a recommendatory Preface by the REV. W. GOODE, A.M.-London: Wertheim, 1845. SINCE the paper on Ronge and the New Reformation in Germany, which appears in a preceding part of this number, was in the printer's hands, the above works have been sent us. They are well worthy of perusal, and we accordingly recommend them most cordially to all our readers. The former contains not only very full information regarding Ronge and Czersky, and the religious movement they have commenced in Germany, but gives one of the best and fullest accounts of the social, moral, intellectual, educational, political, and religious condition of Germany, especially of the Prussian dominions, which we have met with in the English language, and being written by an enlightened Scottish presbyterian, our readers may trust both his premises and conclusions. The latter consists very much of documents, the Creeds, Protests, Resolutions, Formularies, &c., of the newlyreformed Church or Churches, and is particularly valuable for the exhibition of authentic materials on which those who cannot read German, or have not seen the original documents, may be enabled to form for themselves a judgment of the actual condition of the German Catholic Church.

minister give the solemn charge. The Rev. Mr. M'Clymont gave the charge to the congregation. The members of Presbytery and elders then gave Mr. Anderson the right hand of fellowship, after which, the congregation gave him a most cordial welcome. After the services, the Presbytery were entertained at dinner in the Black Bull Inn, when about one hundred gentlemen, ministers and laymen of different denominations, sat down. The Rev. Mr. Blythe, sen., in the chair, and John Angus, Esq., in the vice-chair. The Chairman proposed Mr. Anderson's health in a neat speech and took occasion to pass a merited eulogium upon Mr. Anderson's talents, piety, and great usefulness in the Presbyterian Church in England which was enthusiastically responded to by the whole company. Mr. A. replied in an eloquent and appropriate speech, expressive of the compliment and honour which had been conferred upon him, and the pleasure he felt in being surrounded with so many gentlemen of various denominations. In the evening a public meeting was held in the Church, when several ministers delivered impressive and interesting addresses upon the Evangelistic and educational schemes of the Independent Presbyterian Church in England. The Rev. Dr. Hutchison of Warrenford spoke at considerable length upon the schemes of the Church. The Rev. Messrs. Hoy and Huie delivered excellent and stirring addresses upon the Home Mission. The Rev. Mr. M'Clymont gave an admirable address upon the educational scheme, pointing out Along with the works mentioned above, we the great importance of having a day-school gladly seize on this opportunity of recomattached to every church within the bounds mending to all our readers what we ought to of the Synod. The Rev. Mr. Lennie enlarged have recommended before this stage of our exisin a speech of great power on congregational tence, viz., "The Continental Echo and Proactivity. The Kev. Mr. Froggat of the Contestant Witness," Snow, Paternoster Row, gregational Church, addressed the meeting on London; a monthly periodical, which, like the principles of Catholic union. And the ourselves, publishes a stamped edition for Rev. Mr. Coates of the Wesleyan connexion, transmission by post, and which we believe, spoke on the friendly sympathy with which he owes its existence, if not also its continuance, in common with his brethren regarded the pro- to one to whom evangelical religion owes perceedings and prospects of the English Presby-haps more than to any single individual in terian Church. the British empire-Sir Culling Eardley Smith, Bart. This work is devoted princi pally to the state of religion on the Continent, and contains the earliest, fullest, most recent, and authentic account of the New German Reformation.

The Rev. Mr. Edwards spoke with great effect upon the active opposition with which Christianity had to contend. The Rev. Mr. Thompson of Alnwick, concluded with an able and eloquent speech. After praise and prayer the congregation dismissed much gratified with the whole proceedings.

[We cannot help wishing we had been present at Mr. Anderson's induction, and the solemn services connected with that interesting and important occasion-important to the Church at large as well as to Morpeth. But although absent, no one then present participates more heartily in the sentiments appropriate to that joyful occasion, or more fervently prays for the blessing of Almighty God on the union then formed, or more confidently anticipates the happiest results not only to our own branch of the Church but to the whole household of faith in that quarter from the zeal, judgment, energy, and devotedness by which Mr. Anderson is so eminently characterized. Let the people of Morpeth but second their minister, and our hopes will be more than realized.-Ed.]


Notes on the Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Schism from the Church of Rome, called the German Catholic Church, insti

[blocks in formation]

We deem it of the very last importance that British Christians should lend a helping hand to those recently-converted priests and people who are still groping in thick darkness, although struggling to reach the light. Much confusion and even serious errors exist in their published formularies. Besides the various congregations or sections are far from being unanimous in the conclusions they have adopted, although their General Assemblies recently held have had the effect of drawing them more closely together, and causing them to be more of one mind and one judgment. The June Meeting of the EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE, to which their priests and chief members will be invited,

will, we doubt not, be of the most signal advantage to these enquirers. But as matters may take a turn before that time, which it were wiser and easier to prevent than correct, something should be done in the meantime. Of all the churches of this country we believe the new Reformers look with most respect and admiration to the Free Church of Scotland. The prestige acquired by that Church entitles it to interfere before any other denomination amongst us, while this interference will be more graciously received at their hands. Could not the Free Church then send over one of their eminent ministers to confer with Ronge and Czersky? Were not the commencement of the session too near to permit his absence at present we would at once have Dr. Cunningham appointed and commissioned to proceed to Germany. But why not send over Dr. Keith and Mr. Lorimer of Glasgow? men, whose name, acquirements, and know ledge of the Continent qualify them most specially to be entrusted with the mission. We do trust the Free Church will take this matter into their most serious consideration. Rome will not be idle, and why should not the Protestant Church counterwork her machinations?

Works of the English Puritan Divines. Select Works of John Bunyan; with an Introductory Essay and Biographical Memoir. By the Rev. JAMES HAMILTON, of the National Scotch Church, Regent Square, London, Nelson, Paternosterrow, London; 1845.


This is the first of a series of reprints of the doctrinal and practical works of the great Puritan divines. The theological works of Bunyan are not so well known as they ought to be, but we are certain this volume will have the effect of making him known as advantageously as a theologian as he has always been as an allegorist. The Introductory Essay, which is worth far more than the price of the entire volume, is in the happiest vein of Mr. Hamilton's characteristic style. The work is got up in the neatest style of typography and binding, and when we inform our readers that the price is only One Shilling and Sixpence with two handsome plates, or One Shilling and Fourpence without the plates, we afford them additional grounds of gratitude for the age they were born in. The next volumes of the series, as we understand, are to consist of some of the works of the great John Howe, to be followed by some others of the works of Bunyan; all to be prefaced by Introductory Essays, by some of the leading divines of the day. It is intended to reprint four volumes in the year, and we deem it a duty to press upon all our readers to become subscribers to a series of works which no modern publications can rival, and sold at a price at which no modern publisher could produce modern works.


A MUCH respected correspondent at Birmingham, than whom our Church possesses

not a warmer friend, or more devoted agent in all her schemes, has sent us a communica

tion, from which we extract the following particulars, which we beg leave to commend to the careful consideration of our readers.

To the Editor of the Presbyterian Messenger.

"Dear Sir,-Can you not procure, or at all events unceasingly urge the transmission of, statistical details, so that the contributions of Churches may be compared with their position and numbers, and other claims upon them? "The most efficient plan for increasing the


circulation of the 'Messenger,' is to advocate | hope our friends will send us such papers as
the formation of Lay Associations in each con- we described in our last.
gregation, and in districts where congregations
are not yet formed, but where we have Pres-
byterian friends. We think Lay Associations
will form the most efficient agents for taking
the subject up. But we do not know of any
thing so well calculated to excite an interest
in the 'Messenger,' and to answer the purpose
of all others for which it was designed, as
keeping up a regular supply of local informa-
tion. Nothing excites such an interest in a
paper, as to see occasionally a paragraph to
shew what is doing amongst ourselves, and
Lay Associations will be useful for supplying
this information.

"If you could in November present us with
an abstract showing what Presbyteries or
Congregations have supplied information, and
how many have been defaulters, it would have
the effect of arousing a spirit of enquiry in
some quarters.

Birmingham, Oct. 9th, 1845."
Nothing would delight us more than to
give local and congregational information
judiciously selected, generally useful, and con-
cisely expressed. We have been most anxious
from the outset to have a correspondent in
every congregation, but our people have not
hitherto properly appreciated the vast in-
fluence of the press. Let local information,
as above described, be communicated to us,
and we shall feel it both a pleasure and a
privilege to give it insertion.

Statistical information regarding the suc-
cess of the schemes is what, above all things,
we desiderate, such, for example, as that we
give in this number from Regent Square. We
entreat all parties to furnish us with full sta-
tistics of what they are doing-their plans and
their success.

It is thus that each congregation can benefit by the collective counsel and experience of the whole Church. From Presbyteries' proceedings, as given in the present number, some few details will be found, but we desiderate further information, Will the official parties connected with Congregational Associations, Treasurers of General Schemes, Clerks of Presbyteries, &c. not supply us with the information we desire? It must be obvious that for all matters of a local nature, we are dependent upon local agents, and if such fail to send up reports, one great object of the "Messenger" is frustrated, and the Church in some of her most real interests grievously injured.


As our Correspondent has referred to the
circulation of the "Messenger," we may state
that our present issue is about 1,700, and it
has increased steadily at the rate of some
fifty or sixty for some months past.
what is 1,700 compared with what ought to
be our circulation, and what it might be made
without the slightest possible difficulty, pro-
vided all our friends were just to use a little,
a very little exertion in our behalf? We
shall not be satisfied till our issue is doubled,
nor even then. In fact we have very sanguine
Messenger" will yet
hopes of what the "
become. We trust before next meeting of
Synod some of our expectations will be


Our kind and zealous friend at Newcastle

has partially misapprehended us. Most of those
with whom we have to do deem us just
rather too severe a disciplinarian. But any
disregard of the Church's interests, any dis-
obedience of the Synod's injunctions, any
omission of the prescribed collections need
expect no mercy from the "Messenger."

Our appeal for contributions has brought
us three papers, one of which appears in this
number. We still repeat that appeal, and

We have thrown off a large impression of M. D'Aubigné's speech in a small neat tract form of 17 pages 18mo., a part of the impression to be stitched in neat coloured paper covers. As no profit is expected (our only desire being that so valuable à document might be as widely circulated as possible) it will be sold for what will merely cover the cost of printing. Our publisher being at present out of town prevents our stating the price, but we believe it will not exceed 2s. 6d. or 3s. the hundred, or one halfpenny for single copies. Those desirous of a supply will have the goodness to order them immediately through their booksellers or in any other manner most convenient for themselves.

By an alteration in our type we give in this number, as we did in our last, about a third more matter without any addition in the price.

N.B. All communications to the Editor, whether official or personal, are requested to be addressed, 22, Myddelton-square.


the order in which the donations arrived :-
THE following list is arranged according to

Watts's Works. Six vols. 4to.
Lowth's De Sacra Poesi Hebræorum. 4to.
Barnes on the Corinthians. Two vols.
Russell's Nubia and Abyssinia.

Hannah More on Practical Piety. Two vols.
Fraser's Mesopotamia and Assyria.

Bennet's Christian Oratory. Two vols.
Sheppard's Christian Encouragement.

Reed and Matheson's Visit to the American Churches.
Two vols.

Lorimer's History of the Protestant Church in France.
Hine's History of the Jews.
Christian Missions.
Todd's Students' Manual.
Coles on the Sovereignty of God.
Mather's Essay to Do Good.
From a FRIEND, per Rev. James Hamilton.

Gladstone on Church and State.

Hill's Lecture's in Divinity. Three vols.
Campbell's Rhetoric. Two vols.
Reeves' Collation of the Psalms.
M.Farlan on the Sabbath.

Aiken on the Application of Natural History to Poetry.
Clarke's History of Justin.
Sherlock on Death.

Brown on the Equality of Men.

Weston on the Rejection of the Christian Miracles by the Heathen.

Orton on Secret and Family Worship.

Beattie on Truth.

Dodd's Comfort for the Afflicted.

Sherlock on Providence.

[blocks in formation]



ACTS OF ASSEMBLY. Published this day, the ACTS and PROCEEDINGS of the GENERAL ASSEMBLY, held at Edinburgh in May, and by Adjournment at Inverness in August, 1845. With the Proceedings of the Commission of the Assembly, 1844, pp. 132, folio. There is appended, the Report on the Public Accounts of the Church, for the year ending 31st March, 1845. pp. 40, folio. Price 5s.

W. P. Kennedy, Edinburgh: and to be had of all Booksellers.




HE SESSION of the above COLLEGE will open at EXETER HALL, Strand, on TUESDAY, the 4th of this month, at Seven o'Clock, p.m.

The arrangements for the classes are the following:

Hebrew and Biblical Criticism, on Wednesday, Nov. 5, at Seven, p.m. Rev. Professor Lorimer.

Ecclesiastical History and Jurisprudence, on Thursday, Nov. 6, at Seven, p.m. Rev. Prof. Campbell.

Systematic and Pastoral Theology, on Wednesday, Nov. 19, at Seven, p.m. Rev. James Henderson, D.D.

A Preparatory class for Latin and Greek will be opened for junior students on Wednesday, Nov. 5, at Seven, p.m., under the superintendence of Mr. W. Hamilton, A.M.,

Classical Tutor.

The following public Introductory Lectures will be delivered :

On Tuesday, Nov. 4, at Seven, p.m., by Professor Campbell.

On Tuesday, Nov. 11, at Seven, p.m., by Professor Lorimer.

On Wednesday, Nov. 19, at Seven, p.m., by Dr. Henderson.

Tickets of admission for the public to these three lectures (price One Shilling), may be obtained at the following places: 16, Exeter Hall; Nisbet and Co's., 21, Berners-street; Baisler's, 124, Oxford-street; and Cotes's, 139, Cheapside.

Gentlemen not studying professionally may obtain tickets of admission to all the classes on the payment of a fee of One Guinea. Applications for further information regarding the College may be made to the Rev. Professor Campbell, 16, Exeter Hall.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

3. CHRISTIAN MISSIONS to HEATHEN NATIONS. In post 8vo., 8s. cloth boards and lettered.

4. The DOCTRINE of the WORD of GOD respecting UNION among CHRISTIANS. Price 2d., or 14s. per 100.

[blocks in formation]

5. The CASE of the FREE CHURCH of The Right Hon. Lord Gray. The Right Hon. SCOTLAND. Second Thousand, 8vo., 2s.

6. THREE SERMONS, preached at the Chapel Royal, St. James's, on Sunday, Dec. 19, and Christmas-day, 1841. 8vo., ls. 6d.

7. INFANT PIETY; a Book for Little Children. Third Edition, 18mo., 1s. 6d. cloth boards and lettered.

8. MEDITATIONS in SICKNESS and OLD AGE. Fourth Edition, square, 2s.

cloth boards and lettered.

9. The GOSPEL of the GRACE of GOD, illustrated in a Series of Meditations. Fourth Thousand, 32mo., 1s. cloth and gilt edges. 10. The UNITY of the CHURCH; another Tract for the Times. Addressed especially to Members of the Establishment. Thirtieth Thousand, 2d. or 14s. per 100.

11. The SANCTIFICATION of the SABBATH, and the Blessings attached to it. Tenth Thousand, 2d., or 14s. per 100.

12. The FIRST FIVE CENTURIES of the CHURCH; or, the Early Fathers no safe guides. 8vo., 18.


of CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE and PRACTICE. 18mo., 3d., or 21s. per 100.

DONATIONS received in aid of BINNS and GOODWIN, of Bath, have

raising FIVE HUNDRED POUNDS for DR. DUFF'S MISSION LIBRARY at CALCUTTA, as announced in a former advertisement.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

published the following Works, which are sold by Messrs. James Nisbet and Co., and the London Booksellers.

In small 8vo., cloth, interleaved for personal application, price 28.,

THE CHRISTIAN'S DAILY GUIDE to PRAYER, and Study of the Holy Scriptures.

In a neat Pocket Volume, price 2s. 6d., THE PSALMS: arranged in Daily Portions, for Reading through twice in the course of the Year. With Short Suggestions for applying them to personal Devotion. By the Rev. A. R. C. DALLAS, M.A., Rector of Wonston, Author of “ Cottager's Guide to the New Testament," &c.

In this Edition, by a novel arrangement, the authorized Marginal Readings are introduced with the Text.

In small 8vo., price 2s. 6d.,

THE COMING of the LORD to JUDGE the EARTH, Doctrinally and Practically considered. By the Rev. EDWARD GILLSON, B.A., Curate of Lyncombe and Widcombe, Bath.

"Four excellent discourses.. The subject throughout is handled in a practical way."—Achill Missionary Herald. In very neat embossed cloth, small 8vo.,

price 4s.,

A TOKEN of LOVE for LITTLE CHILDREN. By the Winow of a Madras Officer, Author of "Memorial of Christian Affection.' Dedicated, by Permission, to the Bishop of


[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]



[blocks in formation]

This Society is founded on the most approved principles of Life Assurance, the WHOLE PROFITS being secured to the POLICY HOLDERS.

The importance of this advantage is apparent from the fact, that at 1st March, 1841, the Society made vested additions, varying from twelve to twenty per cent. on the sums assured, to all Policies of Five Years' endurance, and at 1st March, 1844, a similar vested addition of six per cent.; besides further prospective additions of two per cent. per annum, calculated on the accumulated amount, in the event of their becoming claims before 1st March, 1847, being the next period of allocation. For example-on a policy for 1,000l. effected on 1st September, 1831, there will, if it become a claim after the 31st August, 1846, be 1,348/. 6s. 3d., payable; viz.: Sum originally assured Vested Addition at 1 st March, 1841, 20 per cent.

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Printed by ALEXANDER MACINTOSH, of No. 20, Great New street, Fetter-lane, London, and published by JAMES MACINTOSH, of No. 47, Church-road, De Beauvoirsquare, in the parish of Hackney, at the Office, No. 16, Exeter Hall, Strand, London, by whom communications to the Editor (post-paid) and advertisements are received. Saturday, November 1, 1845. Sold by HAMILTON, ADAMS, and Co., Paternoster-row; and JAMES NISBET and Co., 21, Berners-street. PRICE PER ANNUM,

[ocr errors]

Stamped (to go post-free).... Four Shillings. Unstamped ..... Three Shillings. Advertisements received not later than the 20th of each month.

[blocks in formation]


cause to felicitate herself upon the result of her undertaking. Nor has she less cause of THE College was opened this winter on Tues-rejoicing in the character of her students. We day, the 4th of November, when the Rev. have the authority of the professors for stating Professor Campbell delivered a lecture which that they are a truly superior class of young will be found in another column. The audi- men, and if God spare them and bless their ence was large and respectable. The Rev. studies, they will yet do much honour to the Wm. Nicolson, Moderator of the London College and the Church. Presbytery, opened with prayer, and the venerable Dr. Bunting, so well known, and where known so highly and justly respected, concluded with prayer and the apostolic benediction. It was altogether a very gratifying occasion to the friends and members of the Presbyterian Church in England. The Rev. Professor Lorimer delivered an admirable Introductory Lecture on Tuesday, the 11th, and the Rev. Dr. Henderson, a truly excellent Introductory Lecture on Wednesday, the 19th, both to large and delighted audiences.


The number of students that enrolled themselves on the first evening exceeded the attendance of last Session, and at present, there are upwards of thirty attending the classes. This is a subject worthy of notice, and deserving of gratitude. It is a well known fact, experienced in all infant institutions, that the first starting, or year, is no criterion by which to judge of its prospective condition. Friends will lend you a helping hand when just setting up for life, will advance you a little credit, and lend you a patronizing smile. But you must not make the same demands upon them for the second year. You must then lean upon your own resources. Your friends have done all that you ought to expect. The rest you must manage for yourself. Besides, there is always a little excitement connected with a new institution. There is novelty to excite attention—an undefined hopefulness to attract regard. And there is, above all, as has been already noticed, that kindly sympathy of human nature to give the "young folks" a fair start in life. It is, accordingly, always found that the second year is much more trying than the first. Everything adventitious has then evanished. The institution is then tested by experience, and subjected to the ordinary or deals by which prudent practical business-like men decide upon the object they mean to support. The romance of the thing has vanished with the first year-the institution honeymoon, and the second year must find it prepared to

stand the test of the stern realities of life.

How the College has stood this ordeal, the preceding facts abundantly evince. Its character is now established, and the Church of which it is so essential a part, has abundant


[AFTER a short introduction, describing the different position and prospects of the College at the commencement of the present session, from those with which it opened last winter, and paying a tribute of affectionate regard to Professor Lorimer and the Rev. James Hamilton, who acted as interim Professor last winter, and to the Free Church for permitting, and to the Rev. Dr. Henderson, of Glasgow, and Mr. Hanna, of Skirling, for consenting to superintend one of the classes for this session, the lecturer proceeded as follows:--]

Gentlemen who purpose to attend our classes this winter, let me for a little address myself more especially to you. In preparing to discharge the functions of any public office, it is important to obtain a correct apprehension not only of the abstract functions themselves, but also of the characteristics of the times on which your lot is cast, and of the country in which your functions are to be discharged. While human nature is essentially the same in all ages and nations, its individual, national, and temporary developments are determined by personal, local, or chronical influences, and with these you must be acquainted if you would be fitted for your spheres in life.

My object in the following observations is to give you an outline of the characteristic developments, and the specific tendencies of the last three centuries, all with the object of impressing upon your minds the tendencies of the present century, that thus your studies may be directed to prepare you for the due discharge of the duties which the age demands at your hands. You will not, however, expect that I should give you any


[ocr errors]









thing like a finished map of the centuries through which we are to pass, with every part laid down with absolute and relative minute accuracy. My time allows only of a general outline, a mere sketch, a sort of school map, which contains only the more prominent objects in their larger generalities. Again, when I speak of the characteristic developments or tendencies of an age, you will not understand me to mean that it has no other developments or tendencies. There are infinite cross currents, eddies, and vortices in the ocean of human thought. But just as a river which rising in the east discharges itself in the west is said to flow westwardly, although in its course, either from external impediments or from internal agencies, it should flow towards every point of the compass,-so, by the tendencies of an age we understand not its direction at every given period of its progress; but viewed at its commencement and at its close, its general tendencies throughout its whole course. These remarks you will please to bear in constant remembrance throughout the following observations.

Every age possesses a specific character as well as every nation. The sixteenth century, for example, was an age of free inquiry. Its tendencies were more to the negative than the positive, more to the analytic than the synthetic, to the abstract than the concrete. It was an age of first principles rather than of systems; of demolition rather than of reconstruction. Luther and his noble band of disciples and coadjutors spent their lives in destroying error and ascertaining a few first principles of doctrinal and practical truth. Calvin, and he, in point of time, belongs not to the primary but secondary reformers, was the first to reduce theology to a system, and organize the Church into constitutional order.

Luther came as the angel of destruction, and gloriously did he fulfil his mission. Calvin followed as the angel of order, and as glorious did he accomplish his destiny. The scintillations of truth which others had struck out-the disjointed mass of materials which others had excavated, were brought to a focus as they passed through his powerful intellect, and in his plastic hands assumed symmetry and form. He was of a truth, to use a Gnostic term, the very Demiurgus of theology and ecclesiastical order. The wild chaos of conflicting opinions—the disjecta membra of disorganized truth, under the influence of his all but creative and literally constructive

genius, sank down and settled into the order | in matters of faith, have always allowed a
and symmetry of a harmonious system. certain interpretative authority to the ancient
And it is a most remarkable phenomenon Church, and in matters of polity and ritual
which shows how the soul of a great founder avow a considerable deference to her deci-
perpetuates itself in his disciples, the fol- sions. They feel, therefore, a vital interest
lowers of Luther and Calvin present till in the investigation of ancient Christianity,
this hour the characteristic features of their and as the result of their labours, they have
respective leaders, in all the sharpness given to the world those magnificent monu-
and distinctiveness of their original deve- ments of patient research and mature erudi-
lopment. The Lutheran divines have never tion to which all students of ecclesiastical
yet been able to produce one single standard history are accustomed to make their daily
work of systematic theology, while their pilgrimages. The Calvinists, on the other
Church, in all its forms of polity and ritual, hand, repudiating the authority of the an-
still remains precisely as Luther left it. These cient Church, feeling but little veneration
great men are still employed, as Luther was, for her character, and less sympathy with
in ascertaining first principles, demolishing her spirit; conceiving, moreover, that she
from generation to generation the theories very soon lapsed into numerous errors, con-
formed by their predecessors, but utterly in- cede no authority whatever to her decisions;
capable of constructing any system which can and if at any time, in the ardour of contro-
stand the test of half a century. And what versy, they have investigated the monuments
renders the phenomenon still more remark- of antiquity, it was only to decry their value,
able, inasmuch as it proves that this singular and, in a clearer and louder tone than be-
fact arises from no peculiarity of the national fore, to shout the Shibboleth of their school,
mind, but from the genius of Luther having the Bible, the Bible only, is the religion of
transmigrated into his followers, the Calvin- Calvinism, and that not more exclusively in
istic or Reformed Germans, such as Schleier- faith than in rites and polity.
macher, Usteri Twesten, and others, while
abundantly betraying the peculiarities of the
national mind, yet display in full perfection
the systemizing constructiveness of the soul
of Calvin. The Calvinists again, like their
immortal leader, however divers the results
at which they may arrive, are all constructives
and system makers. In the bold career of in-
vestigation-in the fearless hardihood with
which, in their process of dissection they lay
bare the nerves and viscera and vital prin-
ciples of truth, the Lutherans stand peerless
and alone. Unawed by mysteries, incapable
of conceiving of fixed and ultimate truths,
enamoured only of fragments, but unable to
apprehend or appreciate totalities, they
acknowledge no limit in the career of inves-
tigation, no fixed point in the process of in-
quiry; but while unparalleled in their mastery
over particles, they lack the genius to dis-
cover relations or arrange their ascertained
conclusions into an organized combination.
The Calvinists, again, while inferior to their
rivals in microscopic intuition, and in the
reckless hardihood of dealing with first prin-
ciples, and consequently inferior also in pio-
neering discoveries, or accumulating primary
facts, are yet as decidedly superior in the
genius of discovering relations, in assorting
into classes, in arranging into scientific com-
binations the facts that have been previously
amassed. The Lutherans are pioneers and
collectors of facts; the Calvinists are con-
structors of systems.

Church. There is surely some medium between exalting her into an absolute arbiter of all truth, and depriving her of all authority, if not as a judge, at least as a witness. For my own part, I will candidly confess, that did I not find the fundamental principles of Presbyterianism, aye, and its leading provi sions too, in the Church of the primitive ages, I should less esteem it, with all its scriptural evidence, than now I most heartily and conscientiously do. But a new era dawns upon us, and Christian antiquity will assume its proper place in our schools. The stain that has been so long attached to our Calvinistic name, of having produced no standard work upon the general history of the Church, will not, I hope, continue for ever. There was indeed one who, had God spared him, would have rolled away our reproach. But he was called to his rest in the noontide of his days, and his work remains but as the blossoms on the vernal tree, exciting the most sanguine hopes of its mature autumnal fruits-hopes, alas! doomed to be blasted in the bud; or, to change the figure, a work which, like the pe ristyle of an unfinished fane, evinces by its beauty what would have been the perfection of the whole, had he but just been spared to finish his noble design. But he has gone where history is intuition; and while we cannot but weep for ourselves, we may not weep for him. Nor has God in his providence left us without consolation. The mantle of Welsh has fallen upon Cunningham.

Such, then, was the sixteenth century. It was an age of first principles.

That this is the true explanation of the phenomenon is perfectly manifest from two well-known facts. First, with the Calvinists, the Reformation, and the origin of their particular Churches, is the only antiquity to which they refer, and in which they feel any vital interest; and in consequence, the genius of Calvinism has shone with peerless lustre on the history of the Reformation and of the Reformed Churches. Lutheranism has never yet procured a history of the Reformation or of a Reformed Church which The seventeenth century, again, was the can stand a comparison with the magni- age of systems. The whole energies of the ficent masterpiece of D'Aubigné, and the Church were then expended in reconstructing immortal Memoirs of McCrie. Did these its formularies of faith, discipline, and polity. great masters but feel the same veneration All our standard works on theology, our for for the ancient Church, the same sympathy mularies of faith, ritual, and government, our with her worthies, the same interest in masterpieces on polemics, are all the produc her fate, the escutcheon of Calvinism would tion of the seventeenth century. It witnessed bear emblazoned the same trophies on the the Synod of Dort near its commencement, field of ecclesiastical history as on the domain our own glorious Westminster Assembly of systematic theology. But secondly, when- about its centre, and the Revolution Convoever the Calvinists have been led to enter the cations near its close. All our great controterritories of the ancient Church, the genius versies-those, for example, between Calvinof their system has shone in the superiority ists and Arminians, Lutherans or Evangelicals of their productions. The works of Dalleus, and Reformed, Presbyterians, Prelatists, and Blondel, Salmasius, La Roque, and many Congregationalists, Jansenists and Jesuits, others, on particular questions of antiquity, Erastians and Ecclesiasticals, Papists and bear ample witness to the truth of this asser- Protestants, remain at the present day without tion. Even the Church of England, Patristic a perceptible alteration, precisely where the enough though it be in much of its polity seventeenth century left them. There is not and forms, has yet felt the influence of the a sect worth mentioning at present in existCalvinism of its Articles and of the Non-ence, the Wesleyans only excepted, whose conformity of the empire, and has, in conse- origin is of a later date, which did not Another extraordinary phenomenon disquence, like the other Calvinistic Churches, assume its distinctive principles in the seventinctive of the two schools, and which may teenth century. It was the age of systems appear at first sight to contradict the preand ecclesiastical reconstruction; and, take it ceding observations is this. The Calvinists all in all, one of the most important in its have never yet produced one standard work influence and results in the history of the on the general history of the Church, (for the Church. ponderous production of Petrie, and the compilations of Hottinger, Spanheim, of Le Seuer, and his continuator Pictet, are assuredly no exceptions,) while all our great works on ecclesiastical history are the production of either Lutherans or Papists. This phenomenon appears all the more startling, when taken in connexion with what has just been stated regarding the superior systemizing and constructive genius of the school of Calvin. But it is easily explained, and indeed arises naturally from the fundamental principles of the two schools. The Calvinists regard the Bible, and the Bible only, as the rule, not less of polity, rites, and sacraments, than of faith itself. The Lutherans again, while they too regard the Scriptures as the ultimate standard

treated of antiquity only for controversial
purposes, and not with the con amore en-
thusiasm of our Lutheran brethren.

And here may I beg permission to say,
that I exceedingly deplore the mistaken
ideas which have led the Calvinists to neglect
this most important department of scientific
theology. It is all very well, and may sound
very pious, and be quoted as yielding high
honour to the Word of God, to say that we
repudiate the authority of the ancient Church.
But the position cannot stand a moment's in-
vestigation, and the sooner we abandon it the
better. The tendencies of the age-the con-
stitution of the human mind-the very nature
of the case, will and must, and that justly
too, invest the ancient Church with the most
thrilling interest, and shed around her hoary
and age-hallowed monuments a halo of glory
which time may mellow, but cannot obscure.
It is irrational, it is unphilosophical, it is
mere sectarian bigotry to decry the ancient

The eighteenth century, again, was the age of dead formalism and superficial sciolism. It was an age of reaction. The passion of the seventeenth century for formularies and systems in which all dogmas and rites, the least as well as the most important, the obscurest as much as the most clearly revealed, were carried to their very minutiæ, and, imposed with equal dogmatism, was carried to an extreme. It is true the vivacious and vigorous piety of the age rendered all its rites and dogmas instinct with life and energy, but the animating piety was not the product of such minute verbal symbolism, and as little could the scholastic distinctions and definitions of the seventeenth century perpetuate, as they could engender its piety.

« السابقةمتابعة »