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real greatness, religion apart, "far as the earth is under the heaven," does Scott stand below Knox. But let us have Carlyle's own words, in the fifth volume of his Miscellanies, in the "Review of Lockhart's Life of Scott." Fuller description of John Knox he gives in his "Book of Heroes and Hero Worship." "Whether Sir Walter Scott was a great man is a question with some; but there can be no question with any one, that he was a most noted, and even notable man. Not little; yet neither is he great; there were greater men, more than one or two, in his own age: among the great of all ages one sees no likelihood of a place for him.


Surely he were a blind critic, who did not recognise in his works a certain genial sunshining freshness, and picturesqueness; paintings both of scenery and figures, very graceful, brilliant, occasionally full of grace and glowing brightness blended in the softest composure; in fact, a deep, sincere love of the beautiful in Nature and Man, and the readiest faculty of expressing this by imagination and by word. No fresher paintings of nature can be found than Scott's; hardly anywhere a wider sympathy with man.

"But after all, in the loudest blaring and trumpeting of popularity, it is ever to be held in mind, as a truth remaining true for ever, that literature has other aims than that of harmlessly amusing indolent, languid men; or, if literature have them not, then literature is a very poor affair; and something else must have them, and must accomplish them, with thanks, or without thanks; the thankful or thankless world were not long a world otherwise! under this head there is little to be sought or found in the 'Waverley Novels'. Not profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for edification, for building up or elevating in any shape! the sick heart will find no healing here, the darkly struggling heart no guidance; the heroic that is in all men no divine awakening voice.

"But so it was: in this nineteenth century, our highest literary man, who, immeasurably above all others commanded the world's ear, had, as it were, no message whatever to deliver to the world; wished not the world to elevate itself, to amend itself; caring nothing for the spiritual purport of his work, whether it tended hitherward, or thitherward, or had no tendency whatever.

"Honour to all the brave and true; everlasting honour to brave old Knox, one of the truest of the true! that, in the moment when he and his cause, amid civil broils, in convulsion and confusion, were still but struggling for life: he sent the schoolmaster forth to all corners, and said, 'Let the people be taught'; this is but one, and indeed, an inevitable, and comparatively inconsiderable item in his great message to men. This great message Knox did deliver, with a man's voice and strength; and found a people to believe him. The Scotch national character originates, in many circumstances, first of all, in the Saxon stuff there was to work on, but next, and beyond all else, except that, in the Presbyterian Gospel of John Knox."

Truly John Knox "is mighty yet, and his spirit stalks abroad." To him Scotland owes, under God, her universities and schools, her civilization and science, her Christian Sabbaths, her open Bibles, and free Gospel. By his heroic and divine mission, at the time of the First Reformation, Scotland was rescued from Popish degradation, and his countrymen raised from feudal serfs, into freemen by the

And this leads to another observation and

truth made free. It was the spirit of Knox | an evening of each week, on which he deems which animated that Second Reformation in it desirable that all whom he addresses should Scotland, which, in the history of England, meet for mutual prayer, and reading of the led to such important results. In the General Scriptures. In this way a number of prayerAssembly of the Presbyterian Kirk of Scot- tion with each of our congregations, which, meetings might speedily be formed in connecland, held at Glasgow in 1638, the first open while they served to strengthen the hands, and successful stand was made against the and encourage the hearts of the ministers tyranny of the Stuarts; and that resistance, themselves, might have a precious reflex after a long interval of civil war, and religious by accustoming them to prayer and supplicainfluence upon the habits of the population, persecution, issued in the establishment of tion for themselves and others. civil and religious liberty in England. The influence of Knox seems now destined to be ex- suggestion, that all our pastoral visits to our tended far beyond both Scotland and England. people should be accompanied with prayer, or The movements of the Free Church of Scot- at least, that in some convenient household, land, the formation of which was the greatest neighbourhood should be assembled for the in each neighbourhood, our hearers in that event since the period of the Reformation, purpose of our offering up prayer in their have already operated powerfully in Germany, behalf. This would have a solemnizing effect, in Switzerland, in America, in India, and all and would teach them to regard the visit of over the world. And the Free Church, in the their clergyman in a different light from that great work she is doing, and destined yet to of an ordinary acquaintance. It would predo, is but carrying out the noble and compre-degenerating, as it is too apt to do, into mere vent the conversation during the call from hensive plans which John Knox three centuries ago devised for the education and

evangelization of his native land.


To the Editor of the Presbyterian Messenger.

DEAR SIR,-I read, with much interest, your observations on "the State of Religion within the Bounds of our Church" contained in the last number of the "Messenger." This is a subject of paramount importance, to which the whole external apparatus and machinery of Churches are but subsidiary. I rejoice that you have taken up this topic, and that you invite discussion upon it, as I think such discussion is calculated to be productive of much and permanent benefit. Fully approving, as I do, of the suggestions you have offered for the purpose of inciting to more vitality and energy of exertion throughout our body, and trusting that our ministers and elders will avail themselves of them and act upon them without delay, I venture, through the medium of the "Messenger," to throw out some additional hints that may, perhaps, not prove utterly unprofitable, if proceeded upon in a dependence on the blessing of God, and the effectual operation of his Spirit.

And, first, and as of primary importance, I would suggest, that all our ministers should give diligence to have stated and regular meetings for prayer, in the different localities in which the members of their congregations may reside. They cannot be present in all but the labour is not formidable that is rethese localities themselves except occasionally, quisite to organize such meetings, and to set them prosperously agoing. A few individuals, however few they may be, in each neighbourhood, who are found willing to engage in this with, and a little assembly may soon multiply exercise, will suffice to make a commencement to many. The minister has only to announce the evening on which he intends to be present, to ensure the presence of those whom he wishes to have convened in a particular place, then to address and exhort them as to the and united prayer, and to ask some of the innature and importance of the duty of social dividuals thus assembled to offer up prayer, concluding the whole service by appointing

outward civility or idle gossip. It would recall those impressions of divine things which may have been made by the ministrations of the Sabbath, but which are so apt to evaporate during the week. It would stamp with an additional sacredness the character of that man of God, who is thus seen to be instant in season and out of season in prosecuting his high vocation of labouring for the benefit of immortal souls. It would be a ends, and of diffusing the savour of religion means of redeeming time to the noblest of all throughout the families of our congregations,

Another suggestion which occurs to me, is that much good might result from enlisting more actively the services of our elders and not enough that the Gospel be faithfully their superintendence over the people. It is expounded and powerfully preached, we should inquire after the fruits which it is producing.

Elders should be instructed and stimulated in this department of their workers with their minister, but fellow-watchduty. They should not only be fellow

ers, so as diligently to observe what effects are likely to result from their united labours. Let them inquire what is the state of practical religion among the people. Is the worship of God established in families? Are there any of the vocation wherewith they are called? professors who walk disorderly and unworthy How is the Sabbath observed and consecrated

by those who profess to name the name of Jesus? Do they sanctify the day of rest? If not, let them be faithfully admonished and reproved, whether they will hear, or whether England, there is reason to apprehend that they will forbear. Alas! for Presbyterians in many of them, and that too even in our most rural and secluded districts, have lamentably inadequate views of the sacredness of the Sabprofessing Christians. And until their views bath, and of its solemn obligations upon on this vitally important subject be rectified, and elevated, it is vain to expect any high standard of personal and practical religion to which they will aspire. They are, in general, outward attendance in the house of God, and there is reason to fear, satisfied with a mere regularity of such attendance, as if it constieven prone to pride themselves upon the tuted the whole of Christianity; while they are not careful to sanctify all the Sabbath, and to keep it holy. There is thus a woeful lack and a plentiful supply of carnal professors. of SPIRITUAL religion in all our congregations, Experimental religion-the life of God in the soul, is at a miserably low ebb, and there is

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IT does not appear that the German Catholic
Church has made much progress of late, nor
do we expect that any great and permanent
influence in the public affairs of the Church
of Christ will result from it. One chief cause
of the movement was the attempt of the
Romish Church to interfere with the civil

rights of Protestants, especially in the mat

of his own observation of the state of matters:

"The movement on the Rhine and in Westphalia seems to have been chiefly produced by the intolerant and oppressive measures of the priests against Roman Catholics all the members of the new Congregations married to Protestants, so that nine-tenths of which have left Rome in those parts belong to such families; and though the same proportion does not seem to hold in reference to the Congregations in Berlin, Silesia, and Saxony, yet the numbers are very considerable; more so, I believe, than I have been able to ascertain; for the leaders of the movement in those parts seemed unwilling to disclose the truth on this point, and studiously avoided giving direct answers to my queries, impossible for me to get at the truth. or gave such indefinite replies as to render it

"It appears evident, from all that I have been able to observe and learn, that the movement is everywhere confined to persons in the lowest ranks of life. I have made every inquiry, but cannot learn that a single has joined it, and, excepting a very few of the individual from the higher circles of society leading men, comparatively few persons from the middle ranks.

I have referred to regular attendance at the house of God as being no infallible indication even of the proper sanctification of the Sabbath, and far less is it an evidence of decided personal Christianity. But it were so far well if we had that proportion of our nominal hearers in regular attendance on the ordinances of the Gospel, who might conveniently attend. But in a multitude of instances it is far otherwise. There are many, connected with all our congregations, who neglect the assembling of themselves together with that diligence and regularityter of the "mixed marriages," which the which would betoken that they are in earnest priests refused to celebrate or sanction, exin seeking the salvation of their souls. Now, cept under promise that all the children it ought to be the business of the eldership should be brought up in the Roman Catholic to excite that serious concern, and to urge to faith, and under other persecuting or prothat punctual attendance on the preaching of the Word, which are so desirable, and which selytizing conditions. The immediate occaare so fearfully awanting, that the most fri- sion of the revolt against Rome, was the volous excuses are sufficient to keep multi- degrading superstition connected with the tudes of our people at home on the sacred Holy Coat of Treves, and the plenary indulday of rest. In addition to this, there would gence promised by Bishop Arnold to all who require in many cases to be a more stringent made a pilgrimage to see the relic. Ronge's exercise of Church discipline, to prevent those letters to the Bishop of Breslau, in 1844— who attend so irregularly from receiving seal ing ordinances. Has not such exercise of the excommunication of Ronge, Czerski, and discipline been neglected? Is it not still their adherents--the election of Ronge to the "They have about forty ministers among neglected, owing to the slavish fear of man, pastorate of the new Catholic Church at Bres- them; but what are these among so many which bringeth a snare? Let us repent, and lau-the Confession of Faith of Schneidemühl, scattered congregations in different parts of do works meet for repentance, for assuredly drawn up by Czerski, as opposed to the Confes-churches and schools, and have not the Germany? They are also destitute of our works are not found perfect before God. A reforming Church may expect the divine sion of Breslau-the Conference and Council of means of erecting them. I have seen but blessing, but if we cherish abuses, we have reason to fear that all our labours will be blasted with spiritual barrenness. One other observation I shall make before concluding. I make it with all humility, and with all deference to my fathers and brethren in the ministry, from all and from any of whom I shall be glad to learn, instead of presuming to dictate to them. But, as we are exhorted to provoke one another to love and to good works, may I suggest that, as pre-ing superstition of Rome, but it has resulted eminently the prosperity of vital religion depends upon that species of doctrine which emanates from our pulpits, it is indispensable to our success in England, that the doctrines of free grace should be inculcated in our sermons in all their length and breadth. "Them that honour God, He will honour, but they who despise Him, shall be lightly esteemed." And never, perhaps, was there a period in the history of the Church, when it was more requisite to saturate the minds of the people with the strenuous inculcation of these doctrines, for Arminianism is coming in upon s, and threatening to overwhelm us, from a tariety of directions, and in a variety of forms, with a deluge of delusions. I cordially concur in the sentiments expressed on this subject by that great and venerable man of God, Malan of Geneva, in his address to

Leipsic, and the subsequent divisions among
the new Protestants. These and other points
in the history of the movement are well
known to all our readers. We do not, how
ever, believe that there is enough of divine
life and positive faith to give power or per-
manency to the New Church. It was im-
possible but that a reaction must take place
against the encroaching tyranny and increas-

chiefly in a negative protest against these,
and in hostility against the Romish Church.
In this, Rationalists and Infidels can join with
the German Catholics. At the same time, it
is well that any break is made in the still-
ness of the darkness of Popery; and when
the spirit of change and inquiry is abroad,
there is preparation made for the entrance of
the word of God. There are also among the
adherents of Czerski many earnest and up-
right inquirers after truth, and through their
intercourse with Evangelical Churches, and
their own searching of the Scriptures, we
trust that to many light will arise out of
darkness. The result of the whole move-
ment we expect will be, not the establish-

one church being built among them, that of Schneidemühl, the funds for which have been contributed by the German Protestants. In some few places, such as Berlin, Breslau, Brunswick, Magdeburg, and Stuttgart, they are allowed the use of Protestant churches, and in many instances, during the summer, they have held their meetings in the open air, attended by many thousands. In many places, where they have no ministers, they attend the Protestant service; and, for the above these small scattered communities will, at no reasons, it is highly probable that many of distant period, 'take a step further,' as one of their elders expressed himself, and join the Protestant Church.

"In the leading circumstances of this movement we have an answer to the boasted unity of the Romish Church, and a salutary check to the ultramontane party, especially in Silesia; but, as extremes approach each other, so, in this extraordinary commotion, we behold many leaders of it casting off, not merely the superstitions of Popery, but also some of the vital principles of Christianity itself. Another striking feature of Ronge's party is this-that instead of appealing to the Holy Scriptures, like the Reformers, in fighting the battle against Rome with the sword of the Spirit, their appeal is chiefly to human

the Assembly of the Free Church, as quoted ment of a new and great church, as many in reason, and their sword is the spirit of the

this country seem to expect, but that the
faithful will, by degrees, join the Evangelical
Protestant Churches, while the others will
unite themselves to the Rationalists, and the
"Friends of Light." The delight with which

age; a spirit of negation, which exalts hu

man reason above Divine Revelation, and subjects it to the interpretation of the spirit of the times; so that God is not allowed to say more than man permits, and human reason must sanction what he does say. What horrid blasphemies! But such is the fact. gations that hold to Czerski, but also in some of those who have adopted the Breslau Creed, there are many individuals that are in search of truth and peace to their troubled minds;

in your last" Preach," (says Mr. Malan,) Christ the Saviour, and his atonement, solely for the Church, for Popery says that his atonement is for all men, which is a lie. Christ is a Saviour, and not a helper. Oh! je ministers of Scotland, have ye some men among you who would listen to the doctrine of Arminianism? The truth, which has made the Church of Scotland so conspicuous, is the truth that Christ is God indeed-that he never died for those who are lost-that those for whom he died he has saved fully and for ever."-I am, joined them. These views are confirmed by and it is to such especially that the Word of

God Almighty forbid. the Protestants at first hailed and aided the And yet we hope, that not only the congre

dear Sir, yours faithfully,

DONALD MUNRO. North Sunderland, Northumberland, September, 1846.

German Catholics has vanished; the people
become daily more indifferent about them;
and during the last half year, it is only a few
who have quitted the Romish Church and

the following statement from Dr. Pinkerton,
the agent of the British and Foreign Bible
Society, in which he communicates the result

God will prove most seasonable and precious. "Indeed, my present visit to the chief congregations of these new Catholics appears to have been just in time to call their atten

tion to the Holy Scriptures, and to prevail upon many of them to adopt the Lutheran Version of them in preference to any other."


JOHANNES CZERSKI having come to London to be present at the Evangelical Alliance, a public Meeting was held on the 28th of August, to hear an address from him, on the subject of the present movement in Germany. Lord Ashley was to have taken the chair, but being unavoidably absent, his place was filled by his brother, the Hon. Wm. Cowper. In his opening remarks, the Chairman said, that every one might be aware of the deep interest which had been excited throughout Europe, in the movement which had lately taken place in the German Church. One of the principal movers in it was the Rev. stranger now before the Meeting. His name had hitherto been coupled with that of Ronge, as if they had seceded together from the Romish Church, whereas, the Meeting would be informed by Mr. Czerski, that he was the first who openly declared against the errors of Rome, by preaching the Gospel of Christ, according to the Divine Word. Mr. Czerski would address the Meeting in German, the Rev. R. H. Herschell interpreting as he proceeded.

The Rev. Mr. Herschell made a short speech before proceeding to act as interpreter. He said that, the Rev. Mr. Czerski had been induced to visit England at the request of his private friends here, as they felt anxious that he should have an opportunity of removing any doubts, respecting his sentiments. He (Mr. Herschell) had experienced much satisfaction at his intercourse with Mr. Czerski, during his residence in his house, into which he had received him as guest, on his arrival in England, although his own mind was then not free from those suspicions which had entered the minds of many, from the circulation of reports that were false. It was, and ought to be remembered, that the Rationalist party had a periodical which they published regularly, that through this organ, they had it in their power to bring accusations against Czerski, and to vent that anger against him and his adherents, to which his refusal to acknowledge the articles of faith drawn up by them had exposed him: while, on the other hand, Czerski's party, from the comparative smallness of it numbers, had not the means to defray the expenses of a regular periodical. Reports had gone forth that there had been a kind of "vacillation" in the conduct of Czerski. He (Mr. Herschell) thought it right to state the circumstances which had given rise to such a rumour. From the similarity of their movements in protesting against the superstitions and traditions of the Roman Church, Ronge and Czerski arranged to meet in a small town called Ravitch. There they became known to each other, but no articles of faith were drawn up, nor was any creed signed by Czerski at that meeting, as it has been falsely reported. The numbers of seceding communities continued to increase so rapidly, that it was thought necessary to have a General Assembly, or Synod of the seceders, which accordingly took place at Leipsic, at which Czerski discovered that Ronge's party did not

maintain the truth as it is in Jesus.

The Rev. Johannes Czerski then came forward. He said that, at the time when he first began to see the errors of the Roman Catholic religion, he held the situation of priest in the Cathedral Church of Posen. He there began to preach to the people the true Word of God, in conformity with the Scriptures, and not in conformity with the traditions of men; and

the clerical authorities noticing this departure from the Roman Catholic system, first menaced him, but finding that he persevered in what he believed to be the right course, removed him to a small Polish village. There he again preached in accordance with the Divine Word, and was again removed to another village, from which he was also removed, after a short time, to a village called Schneidemuehl. There it was, being joined by about twelve other persons, that he seceded from the Roman Catholic Church, and with these formed a new community. The Roman Catholic authorities then attempted to win him back, first by bribes and flattery, and then by threats; but finding that their attempts all failed, they excommunicated and cursed him. After he had been employed for some time in his new community at Schneidemuehl, the Roman Catholic authorities made a plot for seizing him in the middle of the night, and carrying him secretly to prison. The plot was, however, known to a poor watchman, who acquainted him with it, and enabled him to escape their machinations. About a month after this it was that Ronge attacked the holy coat at Treves. When he saw Ronge's letter against the coat, he was delighted, and hailed him as a fellow-combatant, and desired to meet him. [Here the Rev. Gentleman was about to relate the circumstances of the meeting at Ravitch, but was interrupted by Mr. Herschell, who informed him that he (Mr. H.) had already done so. It was a pity not to have heard Mr. Czerski's own account of this, as it seemed a point of so much importance to himself and the Christian public. We may remark, that the effect of the whole address was greatly lost, and Czerski appeared under great disadvantage, in consequence of the interruption and weakening of his narrative consequent upon the immediate interpretation, sentence after sentence, although ably and literally translated by Mr. Herschell. The most favourable impression, however, was made on all who heard Mr. Czerski's statements, and especially on those who were able to follow him "speaking in his own tongue the wonderful works of God.”]

recommending him to the prayers of all Christians for his further enlightenment in whatever points he might yet be in comparative darkness. The Meeting was also shortly addressed by Herr Post, the companion of Czerski, also a Reformed Catholic Priest, and was closed after prayer by the Rev. Mr. Herschell.

A collection was made at the door solely for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the room, it being declared, that although sums of money had been offered to Czerski to aid him in his cause, that he had refused to accept of any money, saying that he had only come to England to open the eyes of the people of England to the true state of the case. Our Continental-Aid Societies, and similar Associations, will, we trust, give their aid and co-operation to assist these men in their important movements.



PASS we now to another scene, about twenty years later, during which time, save in the brief and glorious Protectorate of Cromwell, there had been an almost uninterrupted succession of arbitrary persecuting measures in the Church and State of England. We enter the prison of Bunyan. It is, you are aware, the common gaol of Bedford. It is said to have been the damp and dreadful condition of this prison which first set Howard's philanthropic spirit in exercise for the improvement of the prisons throughout Europe. Bunyan's prison stood upon Bedford-bridge. It was a bridge of sighs to many, though, by God's grace, not to him; its walls were, probably almost as damp as the dungeons in Venice, but it was not sea water that washed its foundations, and trickled its rusty iron gates with moisture. There was no court-yard, no space for out-ofdoor work, or exercise in the open air; there were stone walls and iron bars, a bridge, and a river. The window in his cell was grated, so that he could not look far or freely out of it; but he could see the sun-light, the water, the fields, and the clouds. The glimpses of sweet nature in this world were not so clear to him here, as were the perspective visions of the Holy City coming in upon his soul. His cell was small and comfortless, as was the whole gaol, and when he would step farther than the few paces back and forth be tween the walls of that cell, he must go into the common room of the prison. In those times of persecution it was crowded; there was ut one period more than sixty dissenters incar cerated along with Bunyan, some for hear ing the Gospel, some for preaching it. He had, it is said, the experience of some cruel and oppressive gaolers, though others were very kind to him. Twelve years of imprisonment are hard to bear,-

Long years! it tries the thrilling frame to bear;'

Soon after the meeting at Ravitch, so many persons seceded from the Roman Catholic Church, that it was thought necessary to have a General Assembly or Synod of the seceders, which accordingly took place at Leipsic; and at which he (Mr. Czerski) was much alarmed and shocked to find that the greater number of the seceders from the Roman Catholic faith had adopted a Rationalist system of religion, and that the lesser number only had adopted the positive Christian faith; and he therefore refused to give his assent to, or to acknowledge the articles of faith which were there drawn up. The former of the two parties was called the German Catholics, and the latter, to which he belonged, the Christian Catholics. It was impossible for him to join the other body, because they denied the and for six of those it has been said that divinity of Christ, and because some of them there is no reason to believe that he was denied even the authority of the Scriptures; ever permitted to set his foot outside the but he still hoped that they might be brought the rocky threshold.. Unable to pursue to see and acknowledge the truth, so as to be the honest trade at which he had always again united, so as to form one Church. The hitherto wrought for the support of his family Reverend Gentleman concluded by begging he now learned-assisted, doubtless by them. that the Meeting would remember him and to make tagged thread laces, by the sale of returned to his own fatherland to fight the at best, a scanty subsistence. A beloved wife his community in their prayers, when he had which they might procure what must have been, good fight, in doing which he would have and four children were dependent upon to encounter many dangers. and were permitted at times to visit him; and that dear blind child, in regard to whom he has, in so artless and affecting a manner related the trials of his feelings, was permitted to abide with him through the day, a solace to his heart, a companion in his work, and

Professor Tholuck, of Halle, then, in a short speech, expressed much sympathy with Mr. Czerski, and also his hope, that, in imitation of the blessed God, we should not break the bruised reed, nor quench the smoking flax;


one to whom he could talk as artlessly as his own soul; their conversation must have been often as the prattle of two children, for Bunyan had in him the freshness and simplicity of childhood, even in riper years; a mark of genius, which a great and profound writer has pointed out as one of its most precious and undoubted characteristics.


Now let us enter his little cell. He is sitting at his table, to finish by sunlight the day's work for the livelihood of his dear family, which they have prepared for him. On a little stool his poor blind child sits by him, and with that expression of cheerful resignation with which God seals the countenance when he takes away the sight, the daughter turns her face up to her father, as if she could see the affectionate expression with which he looks upon her, and prattles to her. On the table and in the grated window there are these books-the Bible, the Concordance, and Bunyan's precious old copy of the Book of Martyrs. And now the day is waning, and his dear blind child must go home with the laces he has finished to her mother. And now Bunyan opens his Bible, and reads aloud a portion of Scripture to his little one, and then encircling her in his arms, and clasping her small hands in his, he kneels down on the cold stone floor, and pours out his soul prayer to God for the salvation of those so inexpressibly dear to him, and for whom he has been all day working. So daily he prays for them and for her, and daily he prays with her, and teaches his blind child to pray. And now it is evening. A rude lamp glimmers darkly on the table, the tagged laces are laid aside, and Bunyan, alone, is busy with his Bible, the Concordance, and pen, ink, and paper. He writes as though Joy did make him write. His pale worn fountenance is lighted with a fire, as if reflected from the radiant jasper walls of the elestial city. He writes and smiles, and lasps his hands, and looks upwards, and lesses God for his goodness, and then again urns to his writing, and then again becomes entranced with a passage of Scripture, the lory of which the Holy Spirit lets in upon is soul, that he is forced, as it were, to lay side all his labours, and give himself to the weet work of his closing evening's devotions. he last you see of him for the night, he is lone, kneeling on the floor of his prison: he alone with God.-Cheever's Lectures on he Life of Bunyan.



To the Editor of the "Times." IR-I am directed by the Sabbath Comittee of the Free Church of Scotland to spress to you their thanks for the recent ost able article on the question of Sabbath ork, in connexion with Mr. Joseph Hume's otion for opening the British Museum and her places of worldly entertainment on the

ord's day.


With that extraordinary felicity and power ith which you present and enforce your ews, and by which you command the repectful attention of the kingdom, and we ay add, of the world, you have in this paper up and pleaded the cause of the bouring classes of the land, who are, as u have acutely perceived and powerfully roved, the real sufferers by any arrangements hich carry over the business of the lawful working days into the day of rest prescribed y the Divine command, and required by very just view of the moral and physical Condition of man. And you have stripped bare and effectually exposed the sophistry

of those, be they who they may, who are blindly labouring to accomplish a universal and unintermitted slavery among all the working classes, under show of promoting the amusement of the classes a step above them, and doing what they can to bring down this Sabbath-observing land to the Sabbath-profaning land of Popish and Infidel Europe, or, say generally, of lands less favoured than our own.

We urge you to go forward in what may truly be called your labour of love to the poor. A late departed member of an illustrious family of this land used to say, that no one could charge him with the profanation of the Sunday, for "I always," said he, "carry my prayer-book in my carriage." He overlooked the grooms, postillions, footmen, innkeepers, and stable boys, who were made slaves for his convenience.

You have proved the like oversight in the motion of Mr. Hume; and England, we trust, will yet come to see and acknowledge it. You have, in your paper, left unentered, it is true, the high grounds on which Sabbath observance righteously rests. We here refer to those only to say, that, thankful to have you with us part of the way, we shall rejoice to see you rising to what is the true strength of your position,-" Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy, in it thou shalt do no manner of work, neither thou, nor thy manservant," &c.

And, powerful as you are with gifts, which, whether felt or not, flow to you from the Lord of the Sabbath, may you be honoured to bring about the time when the sinning railway proprietors may be heard saying, in the words of your own liturgy, "Lord have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law."

In the name and by the authority of the Sabbath Committee of the Free Church of Scotland, I have the honour to be, Sir, your humble servant,

GEORGE R. DAVIDSON, Convener. Edinburgh, 33, York Place, August 24.

(From the Times.) IT is really not without some hesitation that we publish to-day the spontaneous effusion of thanks which will be found in another column. The compliments with which the Sabbath

of his periodical relief from toil. The taskmaster dares not yet deny the pittance of time that is demanded in the name of religion, and for the purposes of rest. But already he grudges this abstraction from his means, and if the barrier which now restrains him is once broken down for another object, he will quickly seize the opportunity for effecting his own. Nor will his task be any longer difficult. The workmen will have voluntarily forsaken the usages he could have pleaded in his own behalf. The necessity of excursions and sight-seeing can never be urged like the necessity for worship and rest. That griping spirit which has already encroached upon the years of infancy and the hours of sleep will hardly give way to the claims of a museum or a steam-boat. They who are so eager for jaunting will be not unreasonably presumed to be brisk enough for working, and the seventh day will soon be swallowed, like the thirteenth hour, in the gorge of commercial cupidity.

These considerations are not overstrained. The unavoidable necessities of competition soon turn an exception into a rule. We know that the persistence of a single tradesman in extreme or inconvenient hours of trade, compels all his brethren to the same course. The opening of museums on Sundays will preclude the possibility of closing other exhibitions equally innocent and attractive. Why should private collectors be debarred the license assumed by the nation? If Sunday visitors are able and willing to spend a shilling of their weekly earnings in the purchase of a harmless gratification, why should they not be as free to do so as to avail themselves of a gratuitous exhibition? Why should not Madame Tussaud's be open? Why not Vauxhall? The line of demarcation would grow more and more difficult to draw. Under our present institutions we can very justly close the theatres on the Sunday, but after the proposed infraction of them, we should be in a strange dilemma even on this point. If scenic representations are abstractly innocent, why proscribe them on a Sunday? If abstractly otherwise, why encourage them on the other six days of the week? But each of these exhibitions would entail a proportionate extension of traffic and trade, till at last a closed shop on a Sunday would be a rarity resulting from the circumstances of the district or the position

FAITH.-Faith takes God at his word, and depends upon him for the whole of salvation. God is good, and therefore he will not-he is true and faithful, therefore he cannot, deceive me. I believe that he speaks as he means, and will do what he says; for which reason, let me be strong in faith, giving honour to God, and rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory.-Ryland.

Committee of the Free Church of Scotland of the individual. have acknowledged the efforts of our pen, are almost too flattering to be proclaimed to the world by the instrumentality of our own sheets. It is a case of conflicting arguments. "Modesty" certainly says "no," but although perhaps, we can hardly appeal to the usual antithesis for the contrary suggestion, yet ordinary politeness forbids our silence, and and we fear we must preserve our civility at the expense of our reserve, and give to this most obliging manifesto of a respectable body the only acknowledgment which a public journal is competent to offer.

Every hour's reflection confirms us in the opinion we advanced, that the success of Mr. Hume's scheme would speedily be attended with most serious mischief to those very classes whose condition it was meant to improve. There is already a strong disposition to grasp at the little privileges of the working classes. As much food as will sustain, and as much rest as will preserve, that strength which is consumed for the gains of others, is less than would be left them by their masters if no law intervened to curb their rapacity. Law, custom, and opinion, at present too strong for the aggressions of avarice, protect the labourer in the enjoyment

AFFLICTIONS.-It is a good sign when the Lord blows off the blossoms of our forward hopes in this life, and lops the branches of our worldly joys to the very root, on purpose that they should not thrive. Lord, spoil my fool's heaven in this life, that I may be saved for ever!—Rutherford.

CHURCH MILITANT.-While Israel marched through the wilderness, the blackest night had a pillar of fire, and the brightest day a pillar of cloud. So, in this world, things never go so well with God's Israel, but they have still something to groan under; nor so ill, but they have still comfort to be thankful for. In the Church Militant, as in the ark of old, there are both a rod and a pot of manna. Arrowsmith.

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The shadow of death's wing upon his pale and sunken face.

These twenty long and dreary months in the dungeon he hath lain

Long days of sickness, weary nights of languishing and pain;

For him no gale hath breathed its balm, no sun hath blessed the year,

No friendly hand to smooth his couch, nor friendly voice to cheer;

His lady, in their lonely hall, doth mournful vigils keep, And where he sat and where he walked his children watch and weep.

Yet o'er his weakness and decay an ancient grandeur falls, Like the majesty that lingers round some mouldering palace-walls;

The light of calm and noble thoughts is bright within his


And, purged of earthly taint, his soul prepares to mount on high.

Nor is he left alone-a sister faithful to him clung, With woman's heart, with home-born love, with angel look and tongue:

There in that Golgotha she sits, so tender, so benign, Fair as the moon's sweet glimpses through the cloudy tempest shine.

The Court is met, the assize are set-the robes of state look brave,

Yet the proudest and the lordliest there is but a tyrant's slave,

Blood-hirelings they who earn their pay by foul and treacherous deeds,

For swift and fell the hound must be whom the hunter richly feeds.

What though no act of wrong e'er stained the fame of JERVIESWOODE

Shall it protect him in those times that he is wise and good?

So wise-so good-so loved of all, tho' weak and worn with care,

Tho' death comes fast, he is the last whom Antichrist would spare!

For his the bold and freeborn mind, the wisdom of a sage, The glow of youth still cherished in the sober breast of age;

The soul of chivalry is his, and honour pure from stainA heart that beats for liberty, and spurns each galling chain,

Whether entwined by hands that bear the crosier or the sword,

For he would see all nations free in Christ who is their Lord;

And once, with England's patriot band, by tyrant power oppressed,

He had dreamed of free and happy homes in the forests of the west

To breathe the uncorrupted air, to tread the fresh green sod,

And where the broad Savannah rolls, in peace to worship God!

These are his crimes! the treason this for which he now is tried

But tho' the forms of law are kept, all justice is denied― Woe! that a land so favoured once should witness such disgrace!

Shame! that a land so powerful yet should brook a scene so base!

Unrol your parchments black with lies-shut fast your coward doors

And brand the aged Chief with crimes his generous heart abhors:

When truth avails not, well ye know how to supply the lack With secret tales, and with wild words extorted by the rack!


There is an hour for every power-an hour of darkness Spur on, ye slaves of Antichrist! or ye the goal may miss!

His strength increasing with his need, he rises bold and high, And fixes on Mackenzie with a clear and searching eye: "How canst thou thus, my lord, 'gainst me such accusations bring,

"That I have been a man of strife, in plots against the king?

"I hate the ways of violence, the anarchist I spurn

"But, in my gloomy dungeon laid, didst thou not visit me, "And solemnly avow, that I from wicked plots was free? "How canst thou then unto my charge such grievous actions lay,

"And all thou hast so solemn said as solemnly unsay?"

The whole assembled multitude full on Mackenzie turned, That even his hardened countenance with shame and anger burned:

"True, JERVIESWOODE, I told thee so as my own private view

"Here I discharge the functions which to the Crown are due."

"If thou hast a conscience for thyself, and another for this "I leave thee to the God of heaven and his all-pardoning



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To the Editor of the English Presbyterian Messenger.

SIR, I have long thought it very desirable that a history should be compiled of English Presbyterianism, from the time of the passing of the Act of Uniformity to the present time; and I am sure it would be gratifying to many to know that such a work were in contemplation. The longer the task is delayed the more difficult it becomes, for our fathers and elder brethren, who have a fund of traditionary information regarding our churches, and of personal recollections of days long since gone by, are one after another removed from us; and with them dies the remembrance of many a fact and many a tradition, which we would in vain attempt to recall af ter their departure. It is to be hoped that some one of our gifted brethren, who has a taste for this class of antiquarian studies, will set himself seriously to work, to compile a history of our Presbyterian Church in South Britain,-tracing its history downwards from the days of Charles the First and the Commonwealth, through the period of its persecution in the reigns of the latter Stuarts

describing its condition subsequently to tion-its gradual departure from "the faith the Revolution, under the banner of tolerawhich was once delivered to the saints,"how some of its congregations were preserved from sinking into the Arian and Socinian heresies, and have maintained an orthodox creed to the present day, although there has in many cases been a lamentable want of spirituality and Christian vitality—and how, in our own times, a revival has commenced, both with regard to the working and propaByterianism, and the spiritual vigour with gation of the distinctive principles of Preswhich she is happily imbued. A work embracing such a wide field of topics would be both interesting and useful, but the materials for it may be difficult to collect. Were all the ministers of our Church, however, each in his own locality, to collect all the information he could glean respecting the history of his own congregation, and of others in his neigh

And twelve hours thence, upon the block, his reverend bourhood, whether still existing or extinct,

head did fall,

And for a terror was exposed upon the City wall;

His limbs were quartered, and were hung all mutilate and bare,

At Jedburgh and Lanark town, at Glasgow, and at Ayr: And thus thro' all broad Scotland these martyred relics go,

whether adhering to the great doctrines embraced by our forefathers, or having adopted an Arian or a Socinian creed, and whether numbered as a part of our Synod, or become connected with some other denomination,some useful data would be furnished for the use of the historian of English Presbytery; and the writer of this is willing to contribute And its ancient oaks and lime trees are sinking in decay his humble share, in the hope that others will

Like a Fiery Cross to rouse the land to the tyrant's overthrow !

The ancient halls of Jervieswoode are desolate and gray,

These are of things that perish, and their place soon knows them not

But a glory from the past illumes this consecrated spot: To him who braves the martyr's death is deathless honour given,

For the faith that breeds heroic deeds is dear to earth and heaven;

And through all succeeding ages, amongst the wise and good, Enshrined shall be the memory of the noble JERVIES


FEAR.-Herod feared John, and did many things. Had he feared God, he would have laboured to have done everything. Gurnal.

GIFTS. A believer has not so much to boast of as a common beggar. He that gives to a beggar gives him a bare alms only; whereas God gives his people both Christ's righteousness to justify them, and also the hand of faith by which they receive it.—Parr. God hears the heart, though without words; "And keep alive within these realms the lamp of Gospel but he never hears words without the heart. -Bp. Hopkins.

"Who scatters firebrands little knows where they may

fall and burn.

"In my degree I have been bold to guard the nation's right,


be stirred up to imitate his example, and surpass him in the minuteness and accuracy of their details. Incidents or facts ought not to be omitted because they may appear to be trivial. Often the historian avails himself of trifling circumstances to enable him to arrive at important and extensive conclusions; and minuteness of detail, when it can be indulged in, ought not to be restrained, even if it should be thought to border on garrulity. It is hoped that the editor of the "Messenger" will welcome such communications, this is the most likely way to prepare them for future use, by casting them into one com mon depository.


The following particulars regarding some of the churches in Cumberland have been partly supplied (but with large additions from other sources), from information communicated, in 1822, by the late Rev. Timothy Nelson, Minister of the Presbyterian con

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