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النشر الإلكتروني

Mr. Hormasdji Pestonji also read before the Presbytery two of the discourses prescribed to him as a student of divinity, and passed the trials necessary for admission as a candidate for license. In connexion with this young Parsi convert, it is interesting to know that his countryman and brother-Christian, Mr. Dhunjibhai Nauroji, has passed similar trials at home before the Presbytery of Edinburgh.

that though we are yet far from the position
which we should occupy, yet, by the grace of
God, we are approaching nearer to it. The
Gospel is being preached. A school is in
operation. The Bible is printed, and being
circulated. Men are being trained for carrying
to the dispersed of Israel, among the towns
and villages of Hungary, the joyful tidings
that Messiah is come."

Notices of Books.

Four Letters to the Rev. E. B. Elliott, on some
passages in his Hora Apocalypticæ. By the
Rev. Dr. CANDLISHI. J. Johnstone, Edinburgh
and London. 1846.

books; along with much valuable information,
the spirit of which may be gathered from the
motto prefixed to the work, "The Bible, and the
Bible alone is the religion of Protestants."

Dick's Christian Philosopher. Vol. I. Glas-
gow and London: Collins and Co.
THE publishers have acted wisely in adopting
this valuable and popular book as one of their
series of cheap publications. It would be
needless to say anything in praise of a work so
well known as "Dick's Christian Philosopher,"
and we are glad that it is now brought within
the reach of all readers in this excellent edition.

HUMILITY.-Saints increase in humility as they draw nearer to heaven. be called an Apostle," said Paul, concerning "Unworthy to himself, seven years after his conversion. As he advanced still farther in years, he cried out, "Less than the least of all saints." A little before his martyrdom, his cry is, “The

The examination of the English school took place on the 6th of August, and was well attended. The school consists of upwards of a hundred boys, most of whom acquitted themselves remarkably well. But the Marathi schools at Poona, which were examined on the 10th, brought forward still Ir our readers wish to enjoy a rich intellectual more remarkable specimens of skill, ardour, treat, if they wish to see an able defence and and diligence, on the part of Mr. Mitchell, exposition of truth, and an effective refutation of and his native teachers. The Scriptures, the error, we advise them to read this masterly Assembly's Shorter Catechism, Natural Theo-treatise of Dr. Candlish. The errors and mislogy by Gallaudet, Works on Algebra and representations of Mr. Elliott relative to Church Geometry, were read, and shown to be mas- Establishments, the recent Disruption in Scot-chief of sinners!" tered with almost equal ease. land, and the Free Church, together with the strange interpretations given by him as to "the measuring of the temple," and "the ascension of the witnesses," (in Rev. x. and xi, chap.) have SINCERITY.Our fear commonly meets us drawn upon him a castigation, severe, but well merited; and at the same time have called forth it. He that will save his life shall lose it. at that door by which we think to run from a most valuable and interesting contribution to As you love your peace, Christians, be plainthe interpretation of the prophetical Scriptures. hearted with God and man: keep the king's Matthew Henry's Commentary. Carefully printed highway, the plain, honest way of God's from the original folio edition, with engrav-commands and Christ's doctrines.-Gurnall. ings, representing scenes, customs, and religious rites. London: Partridge and Oakey, 34, Paternoster-row. 1846.


EXTRACT of a letter from one of the mission-
aries of the Free Church of Scotland :-
"Our new edition of the Hebrew Bible is
now finished. I suppose you will by this
time have received the copy we sent you by
the Rev. Mr. Grant. You will see that the

execution is beautiful, and that it forms one
of the finest editions of the kind that have
yet been published. We have already begun
the work of circulation. We sent two of
our colporteurs with one assortment, a journey
of 250 miles, through Hungary to Poland.
We wished to see especially if an entrance

could be got for them through the frontier
into that dark land. They sold a large
number of copies in the towns and villages
of Hungary through which they passed. But
when they came to the boundaries, their pro-
gress was stopped. They learned, from the
custom-house officers, that they have the
strictest orders to let no book, of whatever
kind, through from Hungary. Our colpor-
teurs were commissioned not only to circulate
among the Jews their own Scriptures, but also
to direct their attention to Him to whom
Moses and the prophets bear witness. Their
work seems in this respect to have been much
blessed, especially in one town (Gyongyes),
where a great stir was made, and much inquiry
existed. Another colporteur we sent with a
similar assortment down the Danube, to the
lower regions of Hungary. A still larger
blessing rested on this undertaking than on
the other. The Jewish mind is in a state of
movement as we expected. Many have heard
a distant report of the truth, and are anxious
The fields are whitening to
We pray the Lord of the
harvest to give us a supply of suitable
labourers. Many Bibles were sold on this
journey, and much inquiry was awakened.
Besides the Hebrew Bibles, he sold all the
German Bibles and New Testaments he had
with him, with a few exceptions, exclusively
among Jews. He as well as the other two
kept daily journals. We may afterwards
present you with extracts from these, that you
may see more clearly the nature of this work.
We feel greatly the want of a right supply of
good and suitable tracts to leave behind in
the places visited, to nourish and deepen the
impressions made. What a field lies before
us in Hungary, when we are once ready
fully to enter on it! Our work is but be-
ginning yet. A few souls in a single city can
never satisfy us.
Our station must be a
centre from which streams shall issue forth
through the whole land. You will observe

to hear more. the harvest.

DEPRAVITY-Nature is so corrupted as not to understand its own depravation. Owen.



Mr. BOWMAN, with the assistance of experienced MASTERS.

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THE great thing in the Church is Christ, the eternal deity of Christ, the blood of Christ, the Spirit of Christ, the presence of Christ among us. The great thing is Christ, but there is also advantage in a certain government of the Church. I am a Presbyterian, not only of situation, but of conviction and choice. Our Presbyterian way is the good middle way between Episcopacy on the one side, and Congregationalism on the other. We combine the two great principles that must be maintained in the Church-Order and Liberty: the order of government, and the liberty of the people.--MERLE D'AUBIGNE.

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On the accession of Queen Elizabeth to the throne in 1558, it was expected that the work of Reformation, interrupted by the bloody reign of Queen Mary, and left so incomplete at the untimely death of Edward VI., would be vigorously carried on in England. The persecuted Protestants came forth from their prisons, and left their places of concealment; the exiles hastened home from foreign lands; and hopes were on all hands cherished that the Church would at length be settled on a liberal and enlarged foundation.

But these hopes were soon blasted. It was found that Elizabeth, while opposed to the authority of the Pope in England, and to the Popish measures of the last reign, thought that the Reformation had already been carried too far, and was resolved to admit no further innovations on the ancient forms of religion. In her own private chapel she retained her altar and crucifix; the gentlemen and singing children appeared there in their surplices, and the priests in their copes; the altar was furnished with rich plate, with two gilt candlesticks and lighted candles, and a massive silver crucifix in the midst; and the whole service was conducted in a way gave great grief to the best of her Protestant subjects. The Queen was often also heard to say that she hated the Puritans


more than the Papists.

The PURITANS were so named from their desiring a purer form of worship, discipline,

and government, than had yet been estab- | diction, within the realms of England and lished in England; and also from the strict- Ireland, &c.; to visit, reform, redress, order, ness of their lives and purity of doctrine. correct, and amend all errors, heresies, They contended that all things should be schisms, abuses, contempts, offences, and settled according to the word of God, with- enormities whatsoever." out admixture of human inventions and traditions; holding in short the great principle, that "the Bible, and the Bible alone, is the religion of Protestants." They therefore saw many things in the Church, as left at King Edward's death, requiring further and more perfect reformation.

But not only was no advance made in the work in which gcod King Edward and the Reformers were engaged when the storm of the Marian persecution arose, but measures were adopted which effectually prevented further progress.

The two principal Acts passed in the first Parliament of Elizabeth were, the ACT OF SUPREMACY, and the ACT OF UNIFORMITY.

By the Act of Supremacy the chief jurisdiction ecclesiastical and spiritual was vested in the Crown: and there was a remarkable clause in the Act giving rise to a new Court, afterwards famous in English history, the Court of High Commission. It was enacted that "the Queen and her successors shall have power by their letters patents under the great seal, to assign, name, and authorize, as often as they shall think meet, and for as long time as they shall please, persons being natural born subjects, to use, occupy, and

In passing the Act of Supremacy the question at issue was, "Whether ought the Pope or the Queen to be head of the Church of England?" Those who hold that Christ is the only Head of the Church, visible as well as invisible, deny the claims of either to this supremacy. And, indeed, if the choice must be made of the two, more might be said in favour of a man and an ecclesiastic, than of one of the laity and a female. But Elizabeth possessed the same high ideas of Royal prerogative and ecclesiastical supremacy as her imperious father Henry VIII. And so this assumption of the Headship of the Church by the Crown, this Erastianism (so called from the name of an eminent writer in defence of the system), this interference of the civil power in the conduct of affairs ecclesiastical and spiritual, continued to be the bane of the Church in England, and the hindrance to further progress in reformation.

By the Act of Uniformity, entitled "An Act for the Uniformity of Common Prayer and Service in the Church, and administration of the Sacraments," the matters which had been

so much debated in the time of Edward VI.

were authoritatively settled; and that in a way the most unfavourable to the Reformers.

exercise under her and them, all manner of In reviewing the liturgy of King Edward, jurisdiction, privileges, and pre-eminences, instructions were given to allow all postouching any spiritual or ecclesiastical juris-sible latitude to the Papists. The rubric

explaining that the kneeling at the sacrament implied no bodily presence was expunged; the prayer, also, for deliverance "from the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome and all his detestable enormities," was struck out from the litany. All the passages objected to in the prayer-book were retained; and all the ceremonies, vestments, and forms offensive to the Puritans were ordered to be


From this time the Puritans were discountenanced and oppressed by the Queen and by the court Reformers, and the most stringent measures were taken to secure compliance with the Act of Uniformity. Commissions were issued for a general visitation, and severe penalties imposed for disobedience to the new act. By fines, by suspension, deprivation, and, if need be, by imprisonment, authority was given to coerce the non-conformists. In vain they appealed to the Queen as loyal and devoted subjects. In vain they appealed to the bishops as fellow-Protestants agreeing in the essentials of faith; and if, as the bishops said, the points in dispute were of mere indifference, why should they be turned out of the Church, and schism occasioned, for things acknowledged to be so trifling? whereas they solemnly declared that they felt these things unlawful, nor would they part with their livings, and court poverty and disgrace, if they felt not that they would do violence to their consciences by conforming.

Meanwhile the principles of the Puritans were gaining ground throughout the nation, and all the ablest preachers, and the most learned men, were on their side. At the University of Cambridge, the celebrated Cartwright, Fellow of Trinity, and Margaret Professor, delivered lectures to vast audiences, wherein he maintained such propositions as these:That there was no order of bishops raised above the rest of the clergy; that bishops should each have the oversight of a particular flock; that they should be chosen by the Church; that each Church should be governed by its own ministers and presbyters, with deacons to take charge of the poor; that archbishops, archdeacons, and other officers of the hierarchy were unscriptural and ought to be abolished. Cartwright having published a book setting forth his views on these and other controverted points, Dr. Whitgift was employed to reply. The argument being manifestly against Whitgift, Cartwright was silenced by being forbid to lecture, deprived of his fellowship, and soon after expelled from the university, and driven into banishment. Whitgift received the thanks of the court, and was rewarded with a

bishopric. Beza declares Cartwright to have been the most learned man of his day in England, and from his great talent and piety he has obtained the honourable name of the

"father of the Puritans."

We have referred to this instance as illustrating the means used for suppressing the progress of truth and reformation at this period. The bishops of the court greatly

It was then found that separation from the Established Church did not give security against penal laws and persecution, which continued to be used against the assemblies wherever they could be discovered.

It was still hoped that the English Parliament might listen to grievances which the Queen and the Bishops disregarded. A treatise was accordingly drawn up by two of the ministers of London, setting forth their principles, and concluding with a petition to the Houses, that a discipline more consonant to the word of God, and agreeing with the other Reformed Churches, might be established by law. The authors were sent for into custody, and by the influence of the bishops, committed to Newgate, where they were illegally detained and cruelly used. This was in the summer of 1572.

dreaded the writings of the Reformers, and | prised and broke up a meeting at Plumber's
succeeded in abridging the liberty of the Hall, which had been hired for preaching and
press. Many printing-presses were seized; celebrating the communion on that day.
and at a later period, when books and Many were taken into custody, and several
pamphlets continued to be secretly dispersed, brought next day before the Bishop of Lon-
the Queen issued a proclamation "for the don. After much conference they were found
bringing in all seditious and schismatical resolute in nonconforming, and to the last
books, and prohibiting her subjects from speech of the Bishop that they must obey
keeping any books against the order of the the will of the Queen, they replied that they
Church, or its rites and ceremonies." It must rather obey the will of God. Upwards
was necessary also to put a stop to the spread of thirty men and women were sent to Bride-
of Puritanism through the pulpits. The well, where they remained in prison upwards
licences of all lecturers and preachers were of a year.
recalled by Archbishop Parker, and new ones
required to be taken, a condition in which
was, "not to disturb the peace of the estab-
lishment, nor to vary from it in anything."
This injunction did not reach to the regular
incumbents nor curates in parishes, few of
whom were likely to require any restraint.
In the county of Cornwall, for instance, there
were 140 clergymen, not one of whom was
capable of preaching a sermon, and most of
them were pluralists and non-residents. In
Northampton there was no preacher, and the
people in vain applied to the bishop of the
diocese to procure one. London itself was in
a lamentable condition; and, indeed, the
whole body of the conforming clergy, with
a few exceptions, were so ignorant and
illiterate, that there was in all parts
of England a famine of the word of God.
All applications to the Queen and her Com-
missioners having proved ineffectual, and
being foreclosed by sequestration, imprison-
ments, silencing of preaching, and restraint
of the press, the Puritans were at a loss, how
to proceed. Having once more applied to
the Queen, and having waited about eight
weeks to see if their complaints would receive
any consideration, several of the deprived
ministers had a solemn consultation with
their friends, in which, after prayer, and
serious debate about the lawfulness and
necessity of separating from the Established
Church, they agreed that it was their duty in
present circumstances, to separate from the
Church, and to assemble, as they had oppor-execution.
tunity, in private houses or elsewhere, to
worship God in a manner that might not
offend against the light of their consciences. STANDARDS OF THE ENGLISH PRES-
DISSENT IN ENGLAND; the era or date (1566)
of Separation from the National Church.

The Queen on being informed that many
of the people were forsaking their parish
churches, and assembling in private houses,
and often in the fields and in woods, to hear
the deprived ministers, and to worship God
without the Service-book, ordered the High
Commission to take effectual measures to

keep the laity to their parish churches, and
to suppress Conventicles. The citizens of
London were threatened, for the first
offence, to be deprived of the freedom of
the city, and after that abide what further
punishment might be deemed fit.
Notwithstanding this threatening message,
the assemblies continued; and on the 19th
of June, 1567, the Sheriffs of London sur-

There being now no further prospect of a public reformation, some of the leading Puritans agreed to attempt it in a more private way, For this purpose they met on THE 20th OF NOVEMBER, 1572, at Wandsworth, in Surrey, when eleven brethren formed themselves into a Presbytery, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Head of the Church. This was THE BEGINNING OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN ENGLAND.

All imaginable care was taken to keep their proceedings secret, but the Bishop of London having received intelligence, informed the Queen, who immediately issued out a proclamation for putting the Act of Uniformity into

(To be continued.)


THE Standards of the Presbyterian Church in England are the Confession of Faith and Catechisms, which were drawn up by the Westminster Assembly of Divines, at the desire of the English Parliament. Of this assembly Richard Baxter, their contemporary, says," The divines there congregated were men of eminent learning and godliness, and ministerial abilities and fidelity. And being not worthy to be one of them myself, I may the more freely speak that truth which I know, even in the face of malice and envy, that as far as I am able to judge by history and any other evidence left us, the Christian world, since the days of the apostles, had never a Synod of more excellent divines." Of those summoned to the assembly about a

hundred attended, including almost all the most learned and godly of the Puritan divines of the seventeenth century. From the Church of Scotland there were five ministers sent as commissioners, among whom are the well-known names of Alexander Henderson, George Gillespie, and Samuel Rutherford. Calamy, Gouge, Burges, Arrowsmith, Caryl, Greenhill, Case, and a cloud of other eminent English non-conformists, whose matchless writings, after long neglect, are again commanding public notice, were engaged in the active work of the assembly. Every article and every clause of "The Confession," and "Catechisms," as well as of "The form of Presbyterial Church government," and "The Directory for Public Worship," was fully and solemnly discussed, and nothing set down without the authority of some proof from the word of God. The assembly was opened on July 1st, 1643, with a sermon in Westminster Abbey, by Dr. Twisse, the Prolocutor, both Houses of Parliament being present. It was not till April 17, 1648, that the Larger Catechism, the last of the formularies, was presented to the House of Commons, when the house ordered six hundred copies to be printed for the service of the members; and the whole was printed by authority, for public use, Sept. 15, 1648. It has long been too much the custom in England to abuse and decry the Westminster Assembly, as well as everything connected with the Puritan times. In fact, it is very common to meet with Englishmen, otherwise well educated, and even English clergymen, otherwise well informed, who are totally ignorant of the history of this, the most important era of the English Church since the Reformation. Frequently we hear the Westminster standards and the whole system of Presbyterianism referred to as of Scotch origin; and the names of "Scotch Catechism," "Scotch Psalms," are given to the venerated works of the English Puritans, which are still used in our schools and churches. The Church of Scotland had the good sense and the wisdom to adopt the Westminster standards at an early period; and they are still retained in Scotland, as well as in other Protestant Churches. But, as we have seen, they were drawn up by English divines; and they were once the authoritative standards of the English Church, When King Charles II. was restored, and when the 2,000 non-conformists were ejected, the Westminster standards were no longer retained by the Church of England. But among the Protestant Dissenters they were held in the highest veneration;—until another

generation arose that knew not the work of their Puritan fathers. In the present day the greater part of Dissenters are too liberal to require subscription to creeds, and too enlightened to follow the standards of the seventeenth century. Let the Presbyterian Church all the more feel it an honour and a duty to stand by those admirable standards, which, beyond all other human compositions, have tended to consolidate the faith and preserve the orthodoxy of the Reformation Churches.



THE Presbyterian Church in England at present (Jan., 1847,) comprises six Presbyteries, with eighty congregations, besides preaching stations. Under the jurisdiction of the Presbytery of London there are sixteen Churches; of the Presbytery of Newcastleon-Tyne, fifteen; Presbytery of Northumberland, fifteen; Presbytery of Berwick-onTweed, eight; Presbytery of Cumberland, seven; and under the Presbytery of Lancashire, nineteen Churches.

The Presbyteries meet once a-month for ordinary ecclesiastical business; besides Meetings for ordinations or induction of ministers, visitation of congregations, and other special objects. The Synod of the Church meets annually; intervening Meetings of the Commission of Synod being held when required for special business. The Meeting of Synod for 1847 is appointed at Sunderland, on the third Tuesday of April. The last Annual Meeting was held at Manchester, when deputations attended from the Free Church of Scotland, and other Presbyterian Churches.

There is a Theological College at London for the preparation of students for the ministry. The classes meet at present in temporary rooms, at 16, Exeter Hall, Strand; where also are the offices for Home and Foreign Missions, and other schemes of the Church. There is a Central or Supplemental Fund for securing a certain amount of stipend to all the ministers. To this fund, as well as to the various schemes of the Church, the congregations throughout England severally contribute according to their ability. Thus, according to Scripture rule and primitive practice, the strong help and bear the burden of the weak; all being knit together in mutual dependence and sympathy; united under one superintendence and government, holding the same standards, and maintaining the same principles, enjoying a visible as well as a spiritual unity, according to the scriptural idea of the Church, the body of Christ. (Eph. iv. 8-16.)

Very humble is the present position of the Presbyterian Church in England, compared with what it was two centuries ago. In 1647, the Synod of London met in St. Paul's, as a Court of the National Church, under the In authority of the English Parliament. 1847, the Presbytery of London meets in a hired upper chamber in Exeter Hall, as a court of an obscure body of Protestant


and its practices fallen into desuetude, and its property seized by Socinians and other spoliators, it is high time for us to wake out of sleep. It is time to strengthen that which remains of the good old Presbyterian cause in England. God has given to us a time of reviving and quickening, as manifested in the state of our congregations, and in the enterprises of Christian love, both at home and abroad, on which our Church has entered. Since the disruption in the Church of Scotland, we have received accession of strength, both from the coming among us of some of the devoted men who gave up their livings in the northern establishment for conscience sake; and still more from the infusion of new life by the reviving of those principles which the English Presbyterian Church and the Free Church of Scotland hold in common.

The events of the last few years in England have plainly shown that the existing ecclesiastical systems present but feeble bulwarks to the advances of Popery and other forms of error. In times of approaching trial the weakness and disunion of the Congregational system will be sadly experienced. It is well, therefore, that the Presbyterian Church, with its Evangelical truth, canonical discipline, and apostolical order, has been again set up as the rallying point for the friends of Protestant truth.


'While," (to use the words of a distinguished member of the Presbytery of London, the Rev. James Hamilton, of Regent-square Church,) "While we rejoice unfeignedly in the successful labours of Christian ministers in other communions, we will not disguise our belief, that nothing can so effectually meet the present crisis in English Christianity as a revival of the Presbyterian polity and the Presbyterian pastorate-that polity and pastorate which IN TEN YEARS DID MORE TO RENDER ENGLAND A RELIGIOUS PEOPLE THAN ALL THE DISCURSIVE EFFORTS OF DIFFERENT DENOMINATIONS SINCE. To revive this compact system and this efficient ministry is the great problem which we belive the providence of God suggests to us, and to which as a Church we now stand publicly and solemnly pledged. Whilst in number so few, and with resources so limited, our position is as arduous as it is responsible; but we look for the strength and the means to Him who has given us the hope and the desire.”

GRACE.-God neither looks to anything in the creature to win him to show kindness, nor yet anything in the creature to debar him; neither righteousness in men that persuades God to pardon sin, nor unrighteousness in men that hinders him from giving this pardon, and acquitting them from their transgressions. It is only and simply for his own sake that he pardons men.-Crisp.

But there have been many such reverses in the history of the Churches of Christ; and we think of the upper chamber at Jerusalem, and Paul's HEART.-Thy corrupt heart is like an ant's hired house at Rome as having had the pre-nest, on which, while the stone lieth, none of sence of the Lord more specially than the them appear; but, take off the stone, and stir Temple or the Pantheon. And, although them up but with the point of a straw, you humble, our Presbyterian Church in England will see what a swarm is there, and how is a free and united body. After a long heart afford thee, did the Lord but withdraw lively they be. Just such a sight would thy period of inaction, during which the prin- the restraint he has laid upon it, and suffer ciples of our Church have been in abeyance, Satan to stir it up by temptation.-Boston.

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