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-that is, the facts of creation and providence. | But let us distinguish between these: the qualities of natural objects are, with slight exception, fixed and settled; thus the perfume and crimson that belonged to the rose, anciently blooming in Sharon, belong still to the rose that blooms on our summer plains. Thus the specific gravity, the ductility, and durability inherent in the gold of Solomon's diadem, still characterize the gold that forms Victoria's crown. Thus, also, the same instincts which guided the bees that roamed among the flowers of Hymettus, and clustered round the lips of the infant Plato, still guide the bees that wander over England's clover fields or Scotland's heathery mountains. So far then, you see, the subjects of botany, of mineralogy, and of the science of living things, are fixed and permanent. But then, on the other hand, the events of history, the other class of primary subjects, are in continual flow. No two of these are exactly alike. The causes that originate incident, and the energizing spirit that impels social, political, religious, or commercial man into action, these assuming, in every case, new forms, there is a constant change, an unceasing developement, so that each occurrence varies from its predecessors; analogous, but not identical; related, but not repeated. Such then, are the objects of primary knowledge; and by directing your attention to these, in the way they respectively require, and next by directing your minds to a secondary class of truths consisting in the well verified judgments and settled opinions, deduced from the former by reflecting men, you lay the foundation in your youth of a rich and durable wisdom. Despise that elemental knowledge, or neglect its opportunities; and your best efforts of intellect will be unfruitful, your fondest conclusions illusory. Nay, as in the case of an ill-furnished stomach subjected to the slightest stimulants, the head gets giddy; so, in the absence of the solid nutriment of facts, the mind gets filled with vain conceit, a state unfavourable, if not fatal, to all improvement. But marking them, trea suring them, digesting them, you will possess a perpetual source of pleasure to gratify your selves, and the surest materials of wisdom to benefit others. You will discern also in the works of nature, and in the events of providence governing the lot of men, the noblest emanations of contrivance, rectitude, and benevolence; you will be carried from effect upwards to cause, and from cause downward to effect, till, like the angels, ascending and descending on the mystic ladder seen by the youthful Jacob after leaving his father's roof, you can trace all the mighty dependency to Him who sits, high-throned, controlling the springs and evolving the issues of material and moral worlds,

Secondly; the next step is to acquire the proper command and use of your faculties, in turning knowledge to account. It is no doubt true that by the very acts of acquiring knowledge, the faculties are so far trained. Their exercise in marking and remembering things, goes to strengthen them. But still the passive reception of a fact is one thing, and the act of mind which compares it with other facts and forms a judgment, is another. For example, natural History, which gives descriptions, is quite a different department from Natural Philosophy, which assigns causes. Proficiency in this implies the exercise of the higher powers. To him who engages and who excells in this, to him to whom it is given "rerum cognoscere causas," the ancient poets assigned the pre-eminence among the masters of thought; to him they awarded the


greenest palm. This course of inquiry im- | Without it mankind could present no subject plies not merely perception and memory, but for history. Without it they would live and reason acting in its highest moods, analyzing, die in units,-unaggregated, unremembered, comparing, discriminating, and extricating unimproved. Language, as a charmed girdle, from a thousand entanglements of sense, the binds the race of men. It forms families, hidden relation; till, as Ulysses who chased the nations, and centuries, into a mutual insursea-god Proteus through all his disguising ance society of help and good-will. mutations, and bound him at last; so the more, it is an implement given by God which intellect traces and detects the latent or sometimes, as a jewelled sceptre, dazzles eluding cause of which it is in quest, holding while it controls; and sometimes, as a naked it at length fast-bound in the cords of a com- sword, pierces to the dividing asunder of the prehensive and unchangeable truth. soul and spirit. It is the winged vehicle for conveying forms of light from mind to mind. It is the many-coloured picture of the silent and unseen thought in the sage's breast, which, when shown, may move and actuate the world. Now, a gift so excellent is surely well worthy of cultivation and eare. Without a proper command of its resources, the best thoughts of the best thinkers may perish as an untimely birth, or be perverted and crippled in their purpose. "There is," says the elder D'Israeli, " a class of minds marked by strong peculiarities, but they want taste and the art of communication; and so their knowledge, like corn heaped in a granary, for want of ventilation, perishes in its own masses."

But this is not all that I have in view, in reference to your course. For, though the business of investigating abstract causes in nature or society, is not to be wholly excluded, though a measure of speculative inquiry is necessary to the culture of the faculties in your case, and though you are at that age in which theory has its special charm; yet it would be unwise to forget that you, or the greater part of you at least, being destined for active life, are required to give these faculties a practical turn. A life of meditative thought, or the discovery of unknown truth, is permitted to few men. You will be mainly required to reason down from causes already understood, and truths generally received, to their proper and profitable consequences, to the arts of life, to the direction of business, to the functions of your trade, to the duties of your family, your circle of society, and above all to religion which, in the love and service of God, is the key-stone of the arch, binding and beautifying the fair structure of your conduct and enjoyments. Oh! never forget, amidst all the searchings of your intellect and all the soarings of your imagination, that your knowledge and wisdom are to be subservient to right action.

If, then, we would succeed in acting our part well in life, we must strive, when young, to obtain the command and use of our various powers. Now, the essays and conversations of your society should be so ordered, as to aid you in this. It is well, for example, to see that in these the premises from which we reason are sound; to see that what is new be also true, though what is true cannot be expected to be always new; to see that your assumptions have their authority in the nature of things, in the sense of Scripture, or in the common sense of mankind. Jealousy in this at the outset saves confusion in the end. Next, take habitual heed that your process of reasoning is coherent and consistent. Next, that no passion, or prejudice, or mere love of contradiction, disturb its progress. And lastly, that no specious and showy fancies,-like the apples which Atalanta threw to divert the racer from his course,be permitted to turn you aside in advancing with rectitude of aim to the goal of a welljustified conclusion.

The practice of clear and rigid reasoning, though slow and irksome at first, will grow into a habit of rapid, vigorous, and ready judgment, which will stand you in good stead, not merely in the deliberate measures, but in the sudden emergencies of business and action. To this confirmed order of your thoughts force, acuteness, and fertility, will come to be added; while your affections and fancy, habituated to the discipline of reason and Scripture, will, like well-trained steeds, come promptly to obey the rein, without aught abating of their fire.

But another advantage which you have a right to expect from your society is, the attainment of a proper mode of expressing your thoughts.

Language, one of the many distinctives between man and the brute, is a noble gift.

Now, it may not be your lot to enter upon the public arenas of debate, where the high interests of nations are concerned; it may not be the destiny of any, or many, of you to add to the books that have been written, enlightening your contemporaries, or carrying down some important portion of truth to posterity; it may not be your function to expound the laws of a nation, or unfold the message of God to men: but still, for the interchange of useful thought, for exhibiting, when called to do so, your reasons of conduct or of counsel, for illustrating your views on the business of life, for persuading your fellows to what is right, religious, and profitable, it is well to obtain an exact acquaintance with language and a ready use of its forms of writing and of speech. For, further, not to mention the reflex influence which language has on thought, so that a fair mastery over words. contributes to the just conception of ideas, there is always a certain weight conceded or refused to the views we advocate, according as they are well or otherwise expressed. "A word," says Solomon, "fitly spoken is like apples of gold in baskets of silver.”

From what I have now said, it will appear evident that in preparing yourselves for the discussions of your Society, it will be well to do so by faithful research, and, as much as possible, by exact writing. Never think you can be too elaborate in this work of preparation, if you wish really to profit yourselves or others. There is no doubt a charm in extemporary speaking. But we may rest assured that the most successful efforts ean only be accomplished by him who duly considers, and who maturely prepares. Such preparation is no hindrance but a help to extemporary thoughts and language. He who so prepares himself will be best able to meet an emergency, and to express himself well on the spur of the occasion. Slight preparation may secure fluency in speaking; but fluency is but a poor qualification when it is without felicity or weight. By reading carefully, writing frequently, and speaking freely, you will attain your object. For, in the words of one who stood high in all such accomplishments, "reading makes a full man, writing an exact man, and speaking a ready man.”

But, to close. Let you and me, my young friends, ever remember that all the means and opportunities we have for improvement, are

Jan. 1847.



[The following paper is a continuation of the
notices, contained in the "Messenger" for
August, 1845, relating to the ministers of
the Presbyterian Church at Lowick.]
MR. Bird, the intimate friend of Boston,
was succeeded in the pastoral office at Lowick
by his nephew, Mr. Edward Arthur, a person
of very opposite habits and manners. The
former was of a pious, sober, and retired
turn of mind; the latter gay, lively, and
extensively concerned in the affairs and busi-
ness of the world. He was of Evangelical
principles, and professed himself a
friend to the Presbyterian Dissenting interest;
willing to spend and to be spent in the cause
of Christ, but unfortunately was too deeply
involved in secular affairs. Mr. Arthur, soon
after his ordination, began to thirst for splen-
dour, and grasp at secular offices, a thing
very incompatible with the character of the
Christian ambassador. A meeting-house had
been erected at Etal, five miles west from
Lowick, and probably by some of his own
hearers in that quarter for conveniency.
That congregation gave him a call to become
their pastor about 1740, which he accepted,
to the no small gratification of his own people.
He did not continue many years in his new
situation, but was translated to Swalwill,
near Newcastle, where he died. A volume
of posthumous sermons, sixteen in number,
of a pious, Evangelical tendency, was pub-
lished by subscription in 1773, in aid of his
two daughters, who lived at Etal, supporting
themselves by their own industry.

a bright and constant flame; his zeal for the cause of Christ against prevailing errors and impiety was very ardent. His memory was long precious to the inhabitants of Lowick and the neighbouring villages.

After Mr. Hall's decease, the congregation of Lowick elected Mr. Gavin Wallace, preacher of the Gospel, to be their pastor, and he was accordingly ordained there in March, 1781. Mr. Wallace was the son of the Rev. Archbald Wallace, of the West Chapel, Wooler ; was born at Fowberry, in the parish af Chatton, on the 25th of February, 1750, and was translated to Nenthorn, near Kelso, in September, 1793.

so many gifts conferred by the All Bountiful CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS THE HIS- | adapted to their cases. His love to God was One, for a special and momentous end. And let us never forget that our mental advancement is but a vain race, if we fail in the moral and spiritual purposes of our existence. We may scale the heights of learning, and sound the depths of science; but oh! what have we gained, if our hearts are at enmity with God, or our lives at variance with his righteous rule. An angel's intellect may, if he fall, but light the torch to show an angel's shame. Your exercises, as members of this society, will, I trust, be ever subservient to your aims, as members of a ransomed and obedient family. Fail not to turn your attainments to the uses of a holy life; otherwise they will be but so many idle ornaments decorating a decaying corpse. Wear them with all gracefulness; but be sure you prize higher than any adornments of earthly knowledge, the panoplies of a living soul-faith, hope, and righteousness. Turn them also to substantial account in loving service to God, and beneficence to men. This is that charity which redeems such accomplishments from being but as the sounding brass and the tinkling cymbal. "Knowledge puffeth up, but charity buildeth up." Is it not passing strange that, amidst scenes where the wants and woes of humanity call for the most ardent philanthropie zeal, there are persons to be found not incapable, and not naturally unkind, who, after an active life, and it may be a long one, find it difficult to name a single disinterested deed they have done to ameliorate the lot of their fellow-creatures? Be yours the nobler reflection, when your life closes, that it has not been wholly useless. Be yours the blessed privilege, though with all humility, to say when dying, "Where I found ignorance, I have left a lesson of truth; where I beheld folly, I have confronted it with the light of wisdom; where I witnessed misery, I have indicated its antidote and aided in its cure; where I saw the tear of sorrow, I have wiped it away with the hand of sympathy, and kindled on the faded or furrowed cheek the smile of an enduring joy; and if it has not been my destiny to walk on the high places of the world's renown, it has at least been my aim to water and leave green one little spot in its lowlier vales.”


WHEN Philip Melancthon was preparing the Confession of Augsburg, he worked at it night and day. He was wasting away his strength, his friends trembled lest he should die over his task; and Luther enjoined him, under pain of anathema, to take measures for the preservation of "his little body," and "not to commit suicide for the love of God." "God is as usefully served by repose," added he; "and, indeed, man never serves him better than by keeping himself tranquil. It is for this reason that God willed that the Sabbath should be so strictly observed."

ROWLAND HILL on one occasion, when he had preached in a chapel where none but baptized adults were admitted to the sacrament, wished to have communicated along with them, but was told respectfully, "You cannot sit down at our table." He only calmly replied, "I thought it was the Lord's table."

INABILITY.-God will confound the language of those sons of pride who cry up the powers of nature; as if man, with the slime of his own free will, and of the bricks of his own self-righteousness, was able to rear up a building whose top might reach to heaven


Soon after the translation of Mr. Arthur
to Etal, the congregation of Lowick gave an
unanimous call to Mr. Edward Hall, preacher
of the Gospel, to become their pastor, and he
was accordingly ordained there in 1743.
Mr. Hall was a native of Northumberland,
but obtained the principal part of his educa-
tion in Edinburgh.

Mr. Hall expected much felicity with his
flock at Lowick, and was not disappointed.
Having devoted himself to the ministry, he
was determined to wait upon his business,
and make that his delight which the Lord
made his duty. In person, although rather
thin, he was above the middle size, and well
made. His face was of the grave and serious
cast, and exhibited a considerable share of
benevolence. His voice and delivery were
peculiarly calculated to make a strong impres-
sion on his hearers. He was a good scholar,
and has left some specimens of his knowledge
of the Hebrew language. As a minister, his
faith wrought by love to the souls of men in
all the offices of his function. While his
health permitted, he watched like a faithful
shepherd over his flock, and daily consulted
their immortal interest. He used to visit
them from house to house, and to speak
freely to them of the state of their souls, and
admonish the disobedient and profane. In
the pulpit, he was fervent and earnest with his
people, and would often exert himself beyond
his strength. He did not forget that he was
family together every day to worship God.
a minister in his own house, for he called his

Mr. Hall rested from his labours on the
his age, and thirty-seventh of his ministry,
12th of July, 1780, in the seventieth year of
highly esteemed, not only by his own flock,
but by persons of all denominations who had
the pleasure of his acquaintaince. His popu-
larity and usefulness remained undiminished
to the last. His visits to the sick were fre-
quent, his exhortations and prayers much

Mr. Israel Craig, the successor of Mr. Wallace, was born in the parish of Temple. He acquired his knowledge of Latin in the High School of Edinburgh; and having afterwards completed the usual course of education pursued at the University in the same place, he was licensed to preach the Gospel, by the Presbytery of Dalkeith, on December, 1791. After obtaining a license, he became an assistant to Mr. Lundie, of Kelso; and having preached at Lowick in the time of the vacancy occasioned by Mr. Wallace's translation to Nenthorn, he received from the Dissenting congregation there, in October, 1793, an unanimous call. This he accepted, and was ordained to the ministry of the Gospel on the 5th of December, 1793. Mr. Johnston, of Wooler, delivered the introductory discourse, Mr. Henry Cant, of Spittal, offered the ordination prayer, and Mr. Nichol, of Warrenford, gave the charge.

Mr. Craig, during the lengthened course of his ministry, had always the pleasure to preside over, and preach to, a numerous body of Christians. And this circumstance, though

perhaps it may be in part owing to the central situation of Lowick, being removed to a considerable distance from all the Dissenting congregations around, yet is it probably still more to be ascribed to his being a plain, serious, and impressive preacher of the Gospel; for may it not be seen, as has often been observed, that where Christ is preached and the Shiloh exhibited, "there is the gathering of the people."

Two hundred years-save fourteen or fifteen-have now passed away since Luke Ogle, by the help of God, first raised the Presbyterian standard in this parish. In the course of nearly two centuries, four houses of prayer have reared their heads and sheltered the worshippers; and the sixth minister, the venerable Israel Craig, closed his mortal career on the 13th of October, 1843, in the eightieth year of his age, and fiftieth of his ministry. For many months before his death the staff of this aged minister, yet pilgrim, was almost dropping from his withered hands; he was bending beneath the weight of his burdens, and groaning for the rest of a more peaceful and a less troublous abode. The day of his departure arrived; he has passed away from this earthly scene, and his vener able form shall be seen no more amongst the dwellings of men. grave was dug in the "Bethel" Chapel, that house of prayer erected during his ministry; and where he regularly, in the days of his health, proclaimed the unsearchable riches of the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ.


Three months after Mr. Craig's death the congregation of Lowick gave a call to the Rev. Thomas D. Nicholson, of the Scotch Church, Workington, to become their pastor, and Mr. Nicholson was inducted into his new charge by the Presbytery of Berwick, on the 31st day of January, 1844.

T. D. N.


WHATEVER novelties Pope Pius IX. has been exhibiting in matters political, in matters theological, his encyclical letter to the Roman Catholic Bishops proves that the so called "Holy See" is the unchanged fountain of heresy and error. Bible Societies; opposition to Popery; the right of private judgment in matters of religion; and various other so called pernicious evils are referred to in the letter.

The correspondent of the "Augsburg Gazette" in Rome writes (23d November) as follows:-"The Pope's encyclical letter, addressed to the Roman Catholic bishops, has appeared. It bears date the 9th November, but it has only been published to-day, and 10,500 copies despatched. It is, so to speak, the letter of notification of the elevation of Pius IX. to the holy see. This voluminous document (containing fifteen small folio pages), after having glanced at the glorious pontificate of Gregory XVI. addresses itself to the bishops, and expresses the necessity experienced by His Holiness of demanding their assistance, in order that they may be ready to oppose with all the force and firmness imposed by their duty, and like good soldiers of the Lord Jesus Christ, the fiercest enemy of humanity; and in order that the House of Israel may possess in them a wall of defence."" The letter adds,-"It is known to every one amongst you that in this deplorable age, (deploranda ætate), the most violent and formidable war is raised by those who, united in a fatal community, turn away their minds from sound doctrine and the truth, strive to seek in darkness and to bring to light every kind of monstrous opinion (opinionum portenta), to exaggerate it for evil, and to diffuse it amongst the people. Our very soul shudders, and we are a prey to the bitterest grief, when we reflect on all the manoeuvres and intrigues by which these enemies of the truth and of light-these adepts at every fraud,-seek to root out from the public mind all the sentiments of justice and piety,-to disturb the laws both human and divine, to shake, and (if they could), to destroy the Roman Catholic religion, and society from top to bottom." Here the letter explains, that not only blasphemers, and those who deny the revelation, must be counted amongst the enemies of the faith; but also, "those who, abusing the gift of reason, and taking the divine word for a human law, dare to interpret that word according to their own private judgment, whilst God has established a living authority charged with the duty of teaching the true meaning of his celestial revelation, and of avoiding all controversies respecting matters of faith by an infallible(?) decision." The Holy Father entreats those whom he addresses, incessantly to exhort those, the care of whose salvation is confided to them, to pursue these principles, and to put them on their guard against seducers.

The encyclical letter then goes on to notice other errors and intrigues, such as the machinations directed against the Holy See, the secret sects already condemned by preceding popes, the biblical societies, which His Holiness condemns after the example of his predecessors; the philosophical instruction (in the bad sense) of youth; religious indifference, the attacks upon celibacy, communism, as contrary to nature and the laws, hypocrisy (muckerei), and finally the vicious portion of the press (teterrima tot undique lantium et peccare docentium voluminum de librorum contagio). The term "vicious


portion of the press," must, says the " Augs-generation. But, alas! they did not possess burg Gazette," "be understood in a moral his intellectual image, for the male part of point of view, and not in the ordinary and his lineage had, about 100 years ago, been political sense." Further on, the clergy are brought under the influence of the Romish exhorted to observe upright conduct and to Church. He thought the last prayer of Martin practise faith and purity of morals. The Luther a perfect seal for this Evangelical Holy Father particularly prays the bishop Union, and trusted that his prayer for the not to confer orders with too much precipita- peace of the Church had been heard, and tion, but to examine, in the first instance, if that the union of all believers was yet to be the candidates are worthy of entering the accomplished. The prayer of Luther was Church. Purity of morals and scientific in these terms:-Lord God, our Heavenly culture ought, above all things, to be taken Father, I call upon thee, in the name of thy into consideration; the education of eccle- dear Son, our Lord and Saviour Christ Jesus, siastics should tend towards this object from whom, by thy grace, I have acknowledged their infancy, and the seminaries should be and preached, graciously hear me, in accordorganized with this view, as wished by the ance with thy favour, in this petition, accordCouncil of Trent. Finally, the letter recom- ing as thou hast revealed to me, in thy great mends, as the best means of avoiding defec- mercy, the distinguished declension (or falling tions and of edifying the faithful, the pure away)—the blindness or darkness of the Pope preaching of the divine word, divested of all (or rather of Popery)-before thy holy day, oratorical ornament; and, as a means of which is not far from us-that the light of raising the ecclesiastical state, the institution the Gospel shall soon follow, and now already of pious exercises. The letter concludes with is advancing through all the world. Graprayer and the accustomed invocation. Our ciously preserve the Church of my beloved Augsburg contemporary adds:-"The posi- fatherland until the end, without a denial of tion of his Holiness, as a secular prince, is the true faith, (or without apostasy from the quite peculiar, so that the first official act of true faith,), and in the true profession of that his pontifical power is of the greatest interest, faith, in order that the whole world may not only to the theological and dogmatical be convinced that for this purpose thou didst world, but also in the spheres of politics and send me. Oh, beloved God, amen, amen!"" science."-Times, Dec. 10.


PARDON. You may have heard of some persons, condemned to execution, who, at the scaffold, have been so obdurate and stiffAT the fourth Public Meeting of the Evan-necked, that not a cry, nor a tear came from gelical Alliance, one of the speakers was the them; yet, just as they have been going to Rev. Dr. Reinthaler, the President of the lay their necks upon the block, when a pardon monastery at Erfurt, the same in which Luther has come, and they were at once discharged was first brought to a knowledge of the truth. from guilt, imprisonment, and death, they He addressed the Meeting in German, but that could not weep a tear before, no sooner his speech was rendered into English by the see the pardon sealed, and themselves acRev. Dr. Schmucker, of America. We give it quitted, than they dissolve into tears of joy, entire, as follows:-"He said that, perhaps thankfulness, and surprise. So it is with he was the only one present who did not un- believers. The more they see Christ in the derstand the language which sent its echo pardon of sin, and the love of God in Christ hither from the most distant islands; but he to receive and embrace them, the more they was not ashamed to make this acknowledg- melt.—Crisp. ment in order that he might have an opportunity of speaking in that language in which God commenced the great work which, during the last forty years, had been prosecuted so gloriously, particularly in this great capital of the earth-the great work of the translation of the Bible into all the languages of the world, which God commenced in the German language by the brave son of the miner who dug up the gold of the Gospel out of the thousand years' depth in which it was buried, and again purified it from the corruptions or dross of time. He would, therefore, address to the meeting a few words in the language of Martin Luther, who was born spiritually to life in Erfurt, from which place he (Mr. Reinthaler) joyfully accepted the invitation to attend on the present occasion; and where, this day, the children under his care were praying for the success of this enterprise.« From the place of the nativity of Martin Luther he could tell much, both concerning his age and our own. The Meeting would rejoice to hear how the old monastery had been renovated both internally and externally; how, during the last twenty-five years it had become the cradle for 3,000 children; and 400 children were now annually nourished with the milk of the Gospel, and encouraged by the love of the brethren even from the new world. Amongst those children were the bodily descendants of Martin Luther descended from him in a direct lineage-two sons and three daughters who not only bore the name of their great ancestor, but a manifest resemblance to his person to the ninth

DEGREES OF GLORY.-It is a very subtle form of self-righteousness fostered by many, which professedly looking for justification in the sight of God by faith only, yet expects a reward hereafter in proportion to good works performed here. A more mercenary motive cannot be conceived; people are to work on earth for the sake of getting higher in heaven! this surely were to serve themselves, and not to serve God. A system of" different degrees of glory" has been invented to give a colour to this pretension. Now, with regard to the execution of the law, where it is expressly said, that "judgment shall be according to every man's work," one would expect a gradation in punishments even as there is a gradation in crimes; but that when the price paid is the same, and man's only title to life eternal is through the merits of another, his 'filthy rags" should be taken into account as fitting him for a higher sphere, is a supposition that should have clear scriptural proof to make it credible.- Voice of Israel.

JOHN VIII. 51.-Keep the doctrines by faith, keep the promises by hope and patience, keep the precepts by performance; and thus Romans xii. 1.

THE SON OF GOD.-If, as is maintained

by Socinians, Jesus Christ used the term

"Son of God" in the sense in which a holy man may be called the child, or son of God, there would have been no cause for rending of clothes, and crying out blasphemy; and still less for putting the law against blasphemy into execution.-Voice of Israel,


It is particularly requested that all communica-
tions intended for the Editor-be addressed, "To
the Editor of the Presbyterian Messenger, 16,
Exeter Hall, London."
Advertisements, business Letters or Parcels,
and Money-orders (payable at Charing-cross
Post-office), to be addressed to Mr. JAMES
PENNYCOOK BROWN, Agent for the Presbyterian
Church in England, 16, Exeter Hall.
Copies of the Messenger, stamped or unstamped,
may be ordered through any Bookseller or

hitherto failed in finding labourers with the
right spirit united to other qualifications
requisite for this undertaking. Our College
in London too is still unfurnished with its
most essential officebearer, the Professor of
Systematic Theology. The class is at present
most ably conducted, but the two Professors
have already more than enough on their
hands, in such subjects as Church History and
Biblical Criticism with Languages, to admit
of their attention being divided by work for
which another teacher ought as speedily as
possible to be obtained. Better however to
delay than to make a hasty appointment. In
these days of shallow and superficial Theology,
it would be well for our English Presbyterian

Presbyterian Church in England. Church to have her students trained by a



man who, like the Puritan Divines of the Westminster Assembly, combines close thinkON account of the abundant and varied mat- ing and Scriptural learning with hallowed ter for the present number of the "Mes-unction of the Spirit and devoted activity in senger," we have enlarged the size of the the service of Christ. paper by eight additional pages; and we shall be truly glad, when, through the exertions of our friends to procure additional subscribers, we shall be enabled thereby at the same price to make the enlarged size permanent, and to carry out some other plans of improvement that are in contemplation. A very little exertion in each congregation would enable us without delay to effect this.


WE beg to remind Ministers and Church Sessions, who have not yet collected for this fund, that they ought to do so without delay. As all the congregations of the Church share in the benefits, it is but fair that all should contribute in due proportion. The travelling, printing, and other incidental expenses connected with the Synod, are met by these collections. There are considerable arrears from last year due to the Treasurer; and, unless liberal contributions are made, the expenses attendant on next meeting, at Sunderland, will be unprovided for, and the travelling expenses of members allowed on a less liberal footing than hitherto.


THE progress of the Presbyterian Church in England is at present retarded most of all by the difficulty of finding suitable men to fill her vacant posts, and to officer the ecclesiasti

cal army.


Church were not invited! and a requisition previously presented by them to Provost Black had been discourteously neglected, although they had been the first to move in the matter and had contributed largely, while as yet other Churches and public bodies had taken no steps for collecting. Many of the clergy and members of the Free Church, however, attended the meeting; and when, on the first resolution being put from the chair, Dr. Candlish rose from the body of the hall to support it, he was so enthusiastically received, and the sense of indignation at the paltry jealousy and ungenerous feeling of those who had attempted to exclude the Free Church was so strong, that the Lord Provost and his sectarian advisers slunk in shame from their position, and a resolution proposed by Dr. Candlish was carried by acclamation, that steps should be taken to appoint a general committee, in which all parties and denominations should be fairly represented.Previous to this meeting the munificent sum of upwards of £8,000 had been collected by the Free Church, which Dr. Candlish stated they were ready to throw into a common fund.



Amount already advertised




St. Andrew's Free Church ........

£ s. d. £ s. ¿.

Church, St. Peter's-square... ...... 38 10
Robert Barbour, Esq. do. .... (ann.) 10 00
George F. Barbour, Esq.......(do.) 10 0 0
James Kemp, Esq....

262 15



3 12 10

15 0 0

ON Sabbath morning, December 20, the Rev.
Dhanjebhai Nouroji, the Parsee who studied
at the Free Church College, and was lately
ordained by the Presbytery of Edinburgh,
preached in Regent-square Church. His text
was Ephesians v..8, "For ye were sometimes
darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord:
walk as children of the light." The discourse COLLECTIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF THE COLLEGE
was full of solid and weighty doctrinal truth,
accompanied with much spiritual savour, and
applied with great earnestness and power. It
does high credit to the Free Church College MANCHESTER, Chalmers's Church
to have so equipped this pious and inte-
resting native of the East, a workman in
Christ's cause needing not to be ashamed,
rightly dividing the word of truth.
pray that the blessing of the Lord may
accompany all his labours, and that the Holy
Spirit may make him an instrument to turn
many of his benighted countrymen from
darkness to light. The Rev. Mr. Murray
Mitchell, of Bombay, and the Rev. Mr.
Hunter, of Nagpoor, in Central India, on
their way from Scotland to their respec-
tive spheres of labour, officiated in other
churches on the same day: Mr. Mitchell
preaching in Mr. Roxburgh's church, at
Greenwich, in behalf of the London Church
Extension Society; Mr. Hunter assisting in
Mr. Macaulay's church, Edward-street, at the
dispensation of the Lord's Supper.


.(do.) 5 0 0 Wm. Parlane, Esq. ..........(do.) 5 0 0 James Gilmour, Esq.

.(do.) 5 00 .(do.) 5 0 0 (do.) 5 0 0 David G. Fleming, Esq. ......(do.) 3 0 0 Robert M'Ewen, Esq. ........ .(do.) 3 0 0 Alex. Waddell, Esq. ..........(do.) 3 0 0 Charles Stewart, Esq. ........(do.) 2 0 0 Robert McLean, Esq. ..... (do.) 0 0 Mr. John M Nish ................. .(do.) 0 10 0

Alex. H. Kelly, Esq........
A. S. Thornton, Esq...

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There are still several important churches throughout the country destitute of fixed pastors, and applications are made by other THE deep and general distress existing in the congregations, which our Presbyteries are unable to meet. We are glad to say that Western Highlands and Islands of Scotland there is now the near prospect of the im- having attracted the attention of the Free Church, the ministers belonging to that reliportant station at Brighton being occupied by a minister from the Free Church of Scot-gious body, in Edinburgh, resolved on making land; and in another part of the paper we a collection in their churches on Sunday, Dec. 13, in aid of their suffering countrymen. record the proceedings at the induction of The result of the appeal was the princely the minister to Trinity Church, at Mansum of 2,3001; an instance of liberality which, chester. We deeply sympathize with our friends at Birmingham and in other places, but few parallels in the history of religious under all the circumstances of the case, has who are experiencing the bitterness of disap- denominations. In order that this proof of pointment and the sickness of hope deferred. the magnitude of Free Church benevolence GATESIDE CHURCH We direct their attention, as well as that of the Church at large, to the valuable counsel may be rightly understood, it is necessary we given by an esteemed brother in a paper in should mention that that religious body have, this "Messenger," entitled, " A Few Subjects for Prayer." Let us look unto the Lord to supply the men we need; let us pray the Lord of the harvest to send forth labourers into his harvest. Besides ministers for vacant

charges, our Church is at present anxiously looking for two missionaries. The field of labour has been fixed upon in a part of China where a great door of usefulness seems open, and ample funds have been supplied by the Church; but the Mission Committee have

since their secession from the Establishment

in May 1843, raised the almost incredible
sum of 1,200,000l. for purposes connected
with their own Church.


ON Friday, December 18, a public meeting
was summoned by the Lord Provost, in the
Music Hall, Edinburgh, to consider what
measures ought to be adopted to alleviate the
distress in the Highlands. To this meeting
the ministers and leading men of the Free

1 0 0

10 0 0



0 10 6

0 10 0


400 Rev. W. M. Thompson......(ann.) 00 Colonel Anderson ............(do.) 100 Mr. S. Dalton ................(do.) 1 00 Miss Isabella Deans (don.) 0 60

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£508 9.1# Treasurers

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THIS Court met at 21, Austin Friars, on the 14th Nov. pro re nata, and was constituted by the Rev. Wm. Nicolson, Moderator, p.t. The Moderator stated that the purpose for which the Presbytery had been summoned, was to consider the propriety of appointing a day for moderating in a call from the congregation at Brighton in favour of a pastor. And the Presbytery approved of what the Moderator had done.

Mr. Hamilton laid on the table an extractminute of a meeting of the Brighton church session, to the effect that they craved the appointment of a day for moderating in said call. And thereafter he moved that Friday, the 27th Nov. current be fixed for this purpose, which motion, having been seconded by Mr. Nisbet, was unanimously agreed to. Mr. Chalmers was appointed to preach at Hanover Church, Brighton, and preside on the occasion. The Presbytery agreed to meet. And they were accordingly summoned apud acta to meet at the same time and place to receive said call after it shall have been moderated in. And, if approved of, to sustain the same, and take any steps thereanent which they may deem advisable, according to the rules of the Church. Mr. M'Lymont was appointed to serve the edict from the pulpit of Hanover Church on the forenoon of Sabbath next. And the sederunt was closed with prayer. The Presbytery met at Hanover Church, in terms of their appointment, on the 27th Nov. The Rev. Mr. Chalmers, Moderator, in the chair. The edict appointing this day for the moderation in a call having been returned duly served, it was moved, seconded, and unanimously agreed to, that a call should be given by the congregation assembling in this place to the Rev. Alexander Ross, minister of the Free Church at Langholm, in Scotland. The form of a call was then produced and read by the Moderator, and afterwards numerously signed in the presence of the Presbytery. The Presbytery having duly considered said call, unanimously agreed to sustain the same, and appointed the Rev. J. Macaulay, with Alex. Gillespie of London, and Charles Cowan, of Pennycuik, Esquires, their commissioners, to prosecute the translation of Mr. Ross before the Free Presbytery of Lockerby. The Moderator was requested to draw up reasons of translation to be forwarded along with the call and the extract-minutes of Presbytery to the Presbytery of Lockerby.

The Presbytery held its ordinary monthly meeting at 16, Exeter Hall, on the 8th December. The Rev. Josias Wilson, Moderator, in the chair.

The Rev. Mr. Marzials, of Lisle, in France, being present, was associated.

The following supplies were appointed for

Brighton, viz., Professor Campbell on Sabbath next; Mr. Hamilton, on Sabbath week; Mr. Marzials on the last Sabbath of the year; and Mr. Cousin on the first Sabbath of next year.

The Clerk was instructed to communicate with Messrs. Anderson, of Morpeth, and D. Fergusson, of Liverpool, with the view of inducing one or other or both of them to act along with the other commissioners appointed by the Presbytery to prosecute the translation of Mr. Ross before the Free Presbytery of Lockerby.

A communication from David Reyburn, at Birmingham, was read.

The Clerk reported that he had preached at Birmingham on the evening of the 27th ult. in the room of Mr. Chalmers, and presided at the moderation of a call from the congregation there in favour of the Rev. Mr. Anderson, of the Free Church at Crailing, in Scotland, and said call was laid on the table numerously signed and duly attested.

Mr. Henderson, of Birmingham, being present, stated to the Presbytery that they had put themselves in communication with Mr. Anderson on this subject, and that from his answer, there was no ground for any hope that their call would be accepted.

Whereupon, it was unanimously agreed, that, considering the length of the vacancy and the frequent disappointments to which the congregation at Birmingham had been subjected, great credit was due to them for the praiseworthy constancy with which they had kept together, that the Presbytery deeply sympathize with them, and that the Moderator be requested to communicate an expression of these feelings through Mr. Henderson, their representative.

This having been done by the Moderator, it was agreed at the request of Mr. Henderson, that the following supplies be appointed for the pulpit of Broad-street Church, Birmingham, viz., Mr. Fisher on Sabbath-next; Mr. Abercromby L. Gordon, on Sabbath week; and Mr. Thompson, on the second Sabbath of next year, to dispense the communion.

The Clerk produced and read an extractminute of a meeting of Deacons of the Presbytery of London, held at 16, Exeter Hall, on the 27th ult.; and a Memorial to the Presbytery from a committee appointed by said meeting, urging the duty and necessity of an immediate effort being made by the appointment of congregational collections or otherwise, for the purpose of relieving the fearful destitution now axisting in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.

The Presbytery unanimously agreed to recommend the object of this memorial. And they do hereby strongly and earnestly recommend the same to all the congregations within their bounds. They cherish a confident hope that the Christian sympathies and liberalities of their people will be called forth with that promptitude which the urgency of the case so imperatively demands. And they appoint James Nisbet, Esq., 21, Bernersstreet, Oxford-street, their treasurer, to whom all contributions should be remitted with as little delay as possible.

Agreeably to notice given at last meeting, Mr. Nicolson moved in the following terms, viz.,-"That every kirk session within the bounds of the Presbytery be required to make up, as soon as possible after the last dispensation of the Lord's Supper, within these churches in each year, a communion roll; and that, to guide kirk sessions in making up such roll, it be an instruction that the names of all who have joined the

congregation within the year be included therein, together with the names of any members who may have been absent for reasons satisfactory to the session, leaving out those who may have ceased to be in communion with the church, through change of residence or otherwise. That the roll, when so made out, shall be attested by the Moderator of the session; and that, at the meeting of Presbytery in January next, and at the stated meetings of Presbytery in January from year to year, the Presbytery shall call for the roll that the same may be attested by the Moderator of the Presbytery." Which motion having been duly seconded, was unanimously agreed to, and the Presbytery resolved and appointed accordingly.

In accordance with notice given at last meeting, Mr. Vertue moved, "That the Presbytery take such steps as to them may seem best for calling the attention of the rulers of this nation to the late persecutions at Madeira, and with a view to prevent any recurrence of the same, or similar outrages in future."

The Presbytery highly approved of the object which Mr. Vertue had in view; and appointed the following a committee to take whatever steps may appear to them advisable for carrying the same into execution, viz.,— the Moderator, Professor Campbell, and Messrs. Nicolson, Chalmers, and Vertue; Mr. Vertue to be Convener.

The Presbytery then called for the report of the committee appointed to consider the desirableness of the site which had been selected by the memorialists from Westminster. Said report was given in by the Moderator, strongly disapproving of the site in question, and recommending to the Presbytery to discountenance the erection of a church in Belgrave-road, as detrimental to our general interests, and ruinous to the congregation immediately concerned. On the motion of Professor Campbell, seconded by Mr. Chalmers, it was unanimously agreed, that said reports be approved of, and that, with a view to aid and assist the York-street congregation in their efforts to obtain a more suitable site, the former committee be reappointed, with the addition of Messrs. Morris and Fisher; Mr, Fisher to be Con


The Presbytery also called for the returns which were appointed at last meeting to be made by the different kirk sessions within the bounds, in reference to the number of elders and deacons, and week-day devotional meetings. (See instructions of Presbytery in the Messenger" of last month.)


Reports were then given in to the clerk from Regent-square and Woolwich churches. The Presbytery desired that reports should, with as little delay as possible, be transmitted to the clerk by those kirk sessions which have not yet made returns; and they instructed their clerk to throw the substance of said reports into a tabular form, and lay the same before the Presbytery without loss of time. Official intelligence on this, as well as on all other matters regarding which the Presbytery may issue their instructions, will be duly published in thre "Messenger" for the information and guidance of kirk sessions and deacons' courts.

The Presbytery adjourned, to meet at 16, Exeter Hall, on the second Tuesday of January next, at three o'clock, P.M., and the meeting was closed with prayer.


THIS Presbytery held its ordinary monthlyMeeting at Manchester, on the 2d of Decem

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