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THE great thing in the Church is Christ, the eternal deity of Christ, the blood of Christ, the Spirit of Christ, the presence of Christ among us. The great thing is Christ, but there is also advantage in a certain government of the Church. I am a Presbyterian, not only of situation, but of conviction and choice. Our Presbyterian way is the good middle way between Episcopacy on the one side, and Congregationalism on the other. We combine the two great principles that must be maintained in the Church-Order and Liberty: the order of government, and the liberty of the people.--MERLE D'AUBIGNE.
HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN ENGLAND.
(Continued from page 338, “Messenger" for January.)
Ar the very time that the first Presbytery in England was thus meeting at Wandsworth in Surrey, the great and good John Knox was stretched on his dying bed at Edinburgh. On the morning of the 24th of November, 1572, he said to those around him, "I have been these two last nights in meditation on the troubled state of the Church of Christ, despised of the world, but precious in the sight of God. I have called to God for her, and commended her to her husband, Jesus Christ. I have fought against spiritual wickedness in heavenly things, and have prevailed." That same day he entered peacefully into his rest; having, with God's blessing on his heroic labours, achieved for his beloved land of Scotland that which the Presbyterian brethren were struggling, with less auspicious efforts, to accomplish for Eng
A few weeks before John Knox's death, he had an interview with Killigrew, the ambassador of Queen Elizabeth at Edinburgh. In a letter to the Lord Treasurer Cecil, dated October 6, 1572, Killigrew thus speaks of
the Reformer, "John Knox is now so feeble as scarce he can stand alone, or speak to be heard of any audience; yet doth he every Sunday cause himself to be carried to a place where a certain number do hear him, and preacheth with the same vehemency and zeal that ever he did. He doth reverence your lordship much, and willed me once again to send you word, he thanked God he had obtained at his hands, that the Gospel of Jesus Christ is truly and simply preached through Scotland, which doth so comfort
him, as now he desireth to be out of this miserable life. He further said, that it was not of your lordship's fault that he was not a great bishop in England; but the effect grown in Scotland, he being an instrument, doth much more satisfy him."
Thus in Presbyterian Scotland, while John Knox thanked God that the Gospel of Jesus Christ was everywhere truly and simply preached, the faithful ministers in England were subjected to penal laws and persecution, and the liberty of Divine worship according to the Word of God and the dictates of conscience, was denied to the people, by the tyranny of the Queen and the bishops.
John Knox had always taken a lively interest in the progress of the Reformation in England, and he was held in highest estimation by the best of the early English Reformers. He was one of the chaplains of King Edward VI., and both in that reign and under Elizabeth, he was offered the highest ecclesiastical dignities. Though he refused place in what he thought an unscriptural hierarchy, by his influence in a great measure, were effected some of the most important changes from Popery, introduced by Cranmer and his associates. In the unhappy divisions which now rent the Anglican Church, the sympathies and opinions of John Knox, as of all good men in other Protestant Churches, were wholly on the side of the oppressed and suffering Puritans. Earnest and affectionate appeals were, from time to time, made to the bishops by the Reformed Churches of Scotland and of foreign countries, but without any effect, either in producing concord, or lessening the rigour of persecution.
Although the Queen's Commissioners knew of the meeting of presbytery in Wandsworth, they could not discover the members, nor prevent others being held in neighbouring
counties. In the records of the times, we observe frequent references to these associated meetings. In 1575 some of the ministers of Northampton and Warwickshire, at one of their meetings, agreed upon certain rules of discipline in their several parishes; but as soon as they began to practise them, letters came from the Court to the Archbishop, and the result was, that the two leading men in the association were taken into custody and sent up to London. The meetings of the brethren were at that time called "classes;" they were usually composed of from twelve to twenty members; they had a moderator; they began and ended with prayer; they conferred and deliberated on parochial and ecclesiastical affairs; these and other matters pertaining to their forms of procedure and the subjects brought before them, we learn from the recorded examinations of some of the members before the Queen's Commissioners.
It is the policy of some to represent the early Puritans as having perversely and unreasonably disturbed the peace of the Church, and refused conformity, merely for questions of the vestments, and for other trifling matters of the rites and ceremonies of worship. Had toleration been permitted in some of these non-essential points, dissent and separation might have been prevented; but all along the Puritans urged objections to many things in the Church as established by Elizabeth, besides the externals of worship. As to the government of the Church; they objected to the whole system of the Anglican hierarchy; the existence of bishops as a distinct order from presbyters; the assumption by them of superiority over the other clergy; their claim to the sole right of ordination, and power of ecclesiastical discipline; the temporal dignities annexed to their office; the jurisdiction possessed by them in the spiritual courts, arising
out of the Popish canon law, and not founded on the Word of God or the statute law of the land; and the existence of archbishops, diocesan bishops, archdeacons, deans, canons, and other unscriptural offices in the Church. They lamented the want of discipline in the Church; the promiscuous access of all persons to the holy communion, without any examination as to qualification, and without any power to exclude unworthy communicants. They objected to the mode of appointing ministers, which they said ought to be by the choice of the congregation, and not by presentation from the crown, or a bishop, or lay patron. They disapproved of pluralities, nonresidence, and the performance of pastoral duties by the proxy of curates. They objected to the buying and selling of Church livings, and the transference in this way of the cure of souls to any purchaser. In the ceremonies and worship of the Church they objected to the devotional exercises being confined to written forms; to the public reading of the Apocrypha; the administration of the Lord's Supper in private; kneeling at the Lord's Supper; the consecration of churches, buryingplaces, and of the sacramental elements; the use of godfathers and godmothers in baptism, and the strange vows undertaken by sponsors in behalf of the child; the rite of confirmation by a prelate; the observation of Church festivals and holydays; the commemoration of the saints of the calendar; these and many other things they regarded as objectionable and unscriptural.
Some of the ceremonies objected to, and on account of which the greatest troubles arose, were in themselves unimportant and harmless; but having been always associated with particular doctrines of Popery they ought to have been abolished, as tending to encourage superstition and error. This was admitted by the more respectable even of the court bishops and conforming clergy. In the last will and testament of Sandys, archbishop of York, are these remarkable expressions: "I am now, and ever have been, persuaded that some of these rites and ceremonies are not expedient for this Church now; but that in the Church reformed, and in all this time of the Gospel, they may better be disused by little and little than more and more urged." Such was the dying testimony of one who had been a severe enforcer of conformity in things which he always thought had better have been disused than urged!
STATEMENT OF DR KALLEY'S CASE.
IN 1838, Dr. Kalley went to reside in
By these instructions, and by other means
On the 16th January, 1843, Dr. Kalley received a verbal message from the Governor of the island "commanding him to abstain from his present illegal courses." Dr. Kalley replied in writing, expressing his anxiety to avoid anything illegal, and begging to be informed what law he was contravening.
tion, not only among the British residents, but also among many of the Portuguese. A Portuguese gentleman, knowing that no law had been violated, went to Dr. Kalley's house in face of the proclamation, and the Governor did not dare to take any notice of this breach of the proclamation. Several poor persons, however, who came for medical consultation, were imprisoned, and although they could not be tried, as having been guilty of no breach of law, they were forced to pay gaol fees before liberation.
On the 31st of March the case was for the first time brought before a court of law, and the judge dismissed it, declaring that there had been nothing illegal in the proceedings complained of.
On the 2d of April another public notice appeared, forbidding any Portuguese to enter Dr. Kalley's house on pain of prosecution, and one man was taken to gaol for disobeying.
The public prosecutor having appealed from the sentence of the 31st of March, the appeal, instead of being carried to the superior court at Lisbon, was brought before another court at Funchal, which had no jurisdiction in criminal cases of this kind. On the 5th of July the judge of this civil court (brother-in-law of the governor, and editor of a journal very violent against Dr. Kalley) declared that he annulled the sentence of the judge of the other court.
On the 11th of July the same judge ordered a warrant to be issued for the apprehension of Dr. Kalley, ordering him to be imprisoned, and bail to be denied. "I declare him,” it was said, "indicted and suspected of heresy and blasphemy. Let the notary place his name on the criminal roll, and pass mandate for his imprisonment, with denial of bail.”
The Governor said that it was illegal to On the 26th of July Dr. Kalley was imhold meetings of Portuguese subjects, or to prisoned, bail being denied. He appealed to address sermons, discourses, or conversations, Mr. Stoddart, the British Consul, who replied on religious subjects;—and that if he did that "the law must take its course." He not forbear he would be prosecuted. This appealed to the supreme judge for liberation interference of the Governor was in direct on bail, but, at the instigation of the public violation of the Portuguese Charter which prosecutor, it was refused, on the plea that allows complete liberty of religious worship. the crime laid to the prisoner's charge was From this time every opportunity was taken one punishable with death. Application was to annoy and injure Dr. Kalley. Several then made to the British judge conservator, times, a mob of persons, instigated, it is sup- a Portuguese judge, in British pay, appointed posed, by the priests, surrounded the entrance to watch over the interests of British subjects. of his house, insulting and abusing the His reply was, that he could not order the patients, and threatening personal violence liberation of one imprisoned by order of against the Doctor. Application having been another jurisdiction. Every appeal to the made to the parish magistrate, and then to the Portuguese authorities having thus proved In enumerating some of the points of dif- Government for protection, it was refused. fruitless, a statement of the case was forference between the Puritan and the Prelatic On the 17th March, 1843, a proclamation warded to the British ambassador at Lisbon, party in the time of Elizabeth, we have not was published by the Governor, which stated and to the Foreign-office in London. referred to the more weighty matters of doc- that Her Majesty the Queen having had her On the 1st of December a letter was fortrine that might be objected to. In many serious attention called to the illegal proceed-warded to Lisbon from the Foreign-office, parts of the Book of Common Prayer, how-ings of Dr. Kalley, he was thereby prohibited with instructions to demand liberation by ever excellent on the whole, there were from holding Meetings for religious purposes, bail. On the 7th of December the superior tismal, burial, absolution, and other services; and the Portuguese were forbidden to repair court of appeal at Lisbon (Court of Relação) and in the catechism, where it was taught to his house. The day after the proclamation declared the refusal of bail o have been that at baptism a child is "made a member was issued, police officers were stationed at illegal; and on the 12th, the court declared of Christ, a child of God, and an inheritor of also that the imprisonment had been illebelieve justified the Puritans in having resisted gal, on account of the incompetaty of the conformity, and in becoming Protestant Disjudge who had ordered it. Assoon, theresenters from the Established Church. fore, as this intelligence reached Madeira, (To be continued.) Dr. Kalley was released from imprisonment.
serious doctrinal errors, such as in the bap
the door with instructions to observe all
It was the 1st of January, 1844, when Dr. Kalley was set at liberty, having been in prison since the 16th of July, 1843. For more than five months a British subject had been left in the public gaol of Funchal, bail having been denied him, and his imprisonment having been declared illegal by the Portuguese courts of law. While in prison Dr. Kalley was visited by several members of the British nobility who were then resident on the island, and by many English and Portuguese who sympathized with him, and were indignant at the injustice and wrong done to him. But the British consul never once came near him. The Portuguese authorities gladly observed this, and supposed therefrom that their prisoner was abandoned by the government of his own country. And certainly there was great remissness, in that more prompt and strong remonstrance was not made from the Foreign-office. It was a dishonourable and un-English thing to allow one of our countrymen to be kept in gaol, until, through long and tedious correspondence, details of official inquiry should be made. It is our English way to count a man innocent till he is proved guilty, but here a man was counted and treated as guilty till he could be proved innocent. We know Mr. Stoddart, the consul, to be an inoffensive, irresolute man, and we suppose he was afraid to expose himself to the hostility and annoyance of the local authorities, without direct instructions from England. Had anything of decision and spirit been manifested at the commencement of this affair, and had Dr. Kalley early received the least countenance and protection from the British government, either through the consul at Funchal, or the ambassador at Lisbon, the scenes of outrage and violence which have since occurred must have been prevented.
During the session of the Portuguese | unprotected by his own government, and Cortes, at Lisbon, in 1844, an important prejudged by that of Portugal, expressed his change was made in the courts of law, the willingness to forego all claim for compensajudges being made removable from station to tion, on condition that no further legal prostation at the pleasure of the government. ceedings took place against him. After This was a subtle and tyrannical way of in- negotiation, this arrangement was made at creasing the power of the court and ministry, Lisbon through the ambassador, with the as few judges would dare lightly to offend sanction of the Foreign Secretary; and Dr. the government, with the terror of being sent Kalley returned to Funchal. from Lisbon or Funchal to Angola hanging over their heads. This change was not made expressly for the case of Dr. Kalley, but it was one of the first affected by it. In several debates in the Cortes allusion was made to the events in Madeira, and the Opposition denounced the proceedings of the government authorities as unconstitutional and contrary to civil and religious liberty, while one of her Majesty's ministers openly expressed regret that Dr. Kalley had been liberated, and his wish that he might yet be condemned. After this public declaration, what could be expected from Portuguese courts with their moveable judges?
On the 7th December, 1844, the decision of the British judge conservator (of Feb. 24,) was reversed by the court of Relaçao, and Dr. Kalley was directed to be again prosesecuted, under an ancient law of Portugal against those who deny God or the saints, and oppose religion. This law, dated from the times of the Inquisition, had long been in disuse, but never had been formally repealed. It was, however, at direct variance with the charter; and to prosecute on such a law was against the treaty of 1842 between Portugal and Great Britain. In the 4th section of Article 145 it is said, "The subjects of each of the high contracting parties shall also within the dominions of the other, be allowed the free use and exercise of their religion, without being in any manner disturbed on On the 24th February, 1844, in conse- account of their religious opinions; they shall quence of the decisions of the supreme court be allowed to assemble together for the purat Lisbon in December, Negrao, the British poses of public worship, and to celebrate the judge conservator, decided that Dr. Kalley rites of their religion in their own dwelling had been illegally imprisoned, and that the houses, or in chapels, or places of worship whole proceedings had been null and in-appointed for that purpose, without any the formal. The public prosecutor, who had smallest hindrance or interruption whatever, formerly appealed to another local court, now either now or hereafter." Signed at Lisbon, appealed to the Court of Relaçao at Lisbon. July, 1842, by Lord Howard de Walden, The case was there fully tried, and Dr. Kalley was acquitted; the attorney-general, public prosecutor, declaring that the charges against the accused were groundless, that he had been guilty of no civil crime, and that the Portuguese charter permits no one to be prosecuted on account of his religion. The whole matter seemed thus disposed of, and it only remained that reparation should be made to Dr. Kalley for his illegal imprisonment. In a Portuguese case where the same judge had overstepped the limits of his jurisdiction, about the very time that Dr. Kalley was released, he was condemned to pay the costs of the trial. But of his conduct in the present case no notice was taken. On June 21st, 1844, Lord Howard de Walden, the ambassador at Lisbon, at the instance of Lord Aberdeen, applied for compensation for the illegal imprionment, but the application was ineffectual.
and the Duke de Palmella.
Within a month after leaving Lisbon, and within a fortnight of his reaching the island, this agreement was violated; and a fresh warrant issued by Negrao for his apprehension. Bail was this time allowed, and it appeared that the step was taken merely to have an additional check on his proceedings. From the time of his return, and indeed from the date of the first and only legal decision (that of Dec. 7, 1844), Dr. Kalley carefully forbore from the slightest appearance of any infraction of the law; he held no "meetings of Portuguese, wherein he declared doctrines condemned by the State;" but he quietly exercised his medical profession, chiefly among the higher classes of the English and Portuguese residents. Spies were set to watch him, and snares were laid; but no ground for prosecution could be found against him. The malice of the priests and the threats of the mob were not however concealed; and intimations were from time to time given that, if not by law, by force he must be removed from the island.
On the 2d of August, 1845, a few friends met in the house of the Misses Rutherford to
hear a letter read from the Rev. Mr. Hewitson, of the Free Church of Scotland, who had been for some time in the island, and whose instructions had been blessed in the conversion of many of the natives. Dr. Kalley never heard of this meeting, and was not present. The spies having observed some of the persons marked as heretics entering the house, conveyed the intelligence to their employers. Presently a mob collected round the house, headed by a priest, Telles, one of the canons of the cathedral, who stood at the door of the house with an image in his hand, thrusting it into the faces of those who came out, telling them to worship God: the mob insulting and striking them. Soon after this, Dr. Kalley, knowing nothing of what was going on, came to the house to visit one of the Misses Rutherford, who was his patient, and was then dangerously ill. In riding to the door he was threatened and insulted, and his Portuguese servant was cruelly beaten. On the details of this day, and the subsequent scenes of violence until the expulsion of Dr. Kalley from the island, we shall not enter, because they have been recently brought prominently before the public in In January, 1845, Dr. Kalley, seeing that England. The following facts are worthy of he was again exposed to danger of imprison-being noted. On the 6th of August, in conment, and that he was at the mercy of Portuguese judges, under an old law of the Inquisition, thought it right to go to Lisbon and see the British ambassador. Lord Howard de Walden told him that "it seemed the claim for compensation had incited them to prosecute anew." On hearing this, Dr. Kalley,
On the faith of this treaty Portuguese subjects have free liberty of worship in the British dominions, and no hindrance is given to English subjects uniting with them and worshipping with them either in their private dwelling-houses or their chapels. And why is the same liberty not to be allowed to Protestants in Portugal that is given to Papists in England? This is not a question of religion, but of equity and national treaty.
sequence of the proceedings on the 2d, and the further violence threatened, application was made to the Governor for protection by police, which was refused. On the 7th, Dr. Kalley went to the British Consul, and, amongst other papers, shewed to him, an anonymous programme of what was to be
done, sent by some friend in the secret of the conspirators, and which proved to be an exact statement of what took place on the 9th of August. Mr. Stoddart advised Dr. Kalley to go to the mayor or governor of the town, who wrote a letter to the governor of the island, but the messenger was intercepted and the letter taken from him. This inattention and non-interference of the public functionaries encouraged the rioters, and they presumed too justly that the authorities connived at their plans. Then came the disgraceful outrages of the 9th of August; the attack on the dwelling of a British subject by a mob; the house ransacked and searched; the property seized, and either stolen or destroyed; the papers and books seized, and many of them burned in the public road, in presence of the British Consul, and the Mayor, and the Civil Governor; and Dr. Kalley and his family having to fly for their lives, with difficulty escaping to a British ship then lying in the bay. During the tumult, the military commandant of the island offered to send troops, as the Governor stated to the British Consul that the force at his disposal was unable to quell the riot; but this offer of reinforcement was declined. That the public authorities culpably neglected to interfere, and even connived at the proceedings of the mob, can be little doubted; and that the immediate instigators of the riot were the Popish priests is evident from the narrative given in a hostile journal (“O Independente"): "After the midday mass, a crowd tumultuously rushed out of the cathedral, and proceeded to the house of Dr. Kalley,"--then describing the outrages committed.
On the 11th of August, the rioters, intoxicated with their success, posted a list of others against whom force was to be applied, a copy of this paper being affixed to the Governor's palace. In consequence of these threats, and the absence of all protection, several British families, at the advice of the Consul, had to take refuge in a British vessel in the Bay of Funchal, till they could return to England.
On the 12th of August, a paper was forwarded to Lisbon, signed by the Governor and about forty of the local authorities, thirty-seven priests, and many others, petitioning the Government "to take steps to prevent similar occurrences in future." The Canon Telles carried about this petition for signature.
May the Great Head of the Church send many M'Cheynes to the pulpits of our English Presbyterian Church.
Yours, very sincerely,
"Dear Jessie,-I am glad to hear by your letter to Mamma that you are a little better. I was always afraid you were taken ill by waiting so closely upon me during my illness. Cast your care all upon God, and He will care for you. Be like a little child fleeing to Christ for shelter, and hiding under His white shining robes, and leaning upon His almighty arm; and pray always that He may slay your lusts, and fill you with His living Spirit, and keep you from falling.
we have lately received intelligence, but | fear you have not a deep sense of the evil of
"I am now much better, though far from strong. If God will, I leave this on Monday for Jedburgh, and then for Gilsland, in England, where I hope to gain a little strength, and also to preach a little to the poor ignorant English. I trust a young man from Edinburgh will stay here in my place, and perform my duties all the time I am I expect to be two Sabbaths. I think he will come on Thursday, the 11th. You do not need to come home as long as the country does you good. Glenny is a very steady girl, and does well for the UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF THE LATE present. When you do come back, if you
REV. MR. M'CHEYNE.
To the Editor of the English Presbyterian Messenger.
She traces her conversion to a sermon
of his on a Communion Sabbath, in St. Peter's. His subject, in fencing one of the tables, was Ananias and Sapphira. "Many come to the table of the Lord," he said. "like Ananias and Sapphira, and lie unto the Holy Ghost." Although she was not a communicant on that occasion, her conscience smote her. She felt very uneasy. In the evening he took as his text Jeremiah xxxi. 31, "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah," &c. In his sermon he spoke of broken covenants of broken baptismal covenants, sick-bed covenants, &c. of broken sacramental covenants, of broken Under this third head, he said, "I put it to your consciences, have you not broken sick-bed covenants?" She felt as if he spoke to her, and became alarmed. "After a pause, (she says,) he changed his voice, and said in a tone I shall never forget, I will forgive their iniquity, and I will was made to criminate those who had been remembe their sin no more." As he uttered driven off the island, the result of the inquiry these words, I got grace; the load went was that the Governor and the Mayor were It was after this that she dismissed, and strong censure passed on the entered his service. She continued with him till his death. She sees the force of many things now, that he used to say to her then, as for example, "Pray that you may know the deceitfulness of your own heart;" "I
On the 27th of September a Royal Commission arrived from Lisbon to investigate the matter. Although the selection and examination of witnesses was most partial and unfair; although the papers of Dr. Kalley were examined and searched, contrary to the treaty of 1842; and although every effort
conduct of the public authorities.
We could carry this statement down to events of much more recent date, of which
off-I saw it all."
feel unwell, apply to Dr. Gibson.
My mother will go with me, and Jamie, I think, will go to Blairgowrie for a week at least.
"St. Peter's is still as it was: some drops of
mercy appear to be falling. Pray much to learn your own wicked heart, and the preciousness of Christ. Do good to all as you have opportunity.
"Your Master, and Friend in the Lord, "ROBT. M. M'CHEYNE. "Dundee, August 4, 1842.”
HAPPINESS.-Could we ask those saints ant in heaven, what it is that renders whose spirits are now glorified and triumphtheir heaven so glorious and their glory so incomprehensible? they would answer, that it is because they have now attained a complete enjoyment of that all-sufficient, allsatisfying, ever-blessed, and ever-blessing object, God in Christ.-Arrowsmith.
IGNORANCE.-Ignorance of the purity of God, of the extent and spirituality of his law, and of the total depravation of their own hearts, is that which makes any persons commence Arians or Socinians. Were they duly convinced of sin, they would need no other arguments to convince them that the Saviour, whose blood is able to expiate its guilt, is and must be very God.-Haweis.
THOUGH we and our best works are vile, yet the Lord, looking upon the forehead of our High Priest, sees holiness engraven there; looking upon the face of Christ, He there also beholds it for us, and becomes well pleased with us; and we, in the four
may be persuaded and our acceptance with the Lord through the faith of Him. Thou that sayest there is nothing but sin in me, sin and vileness in all I do, I answer, It is true, the Lord can see nothing but sin in thee; but He cannot look upon High Priest but there He sees holiness, yea, the holiness of Jehovah there.—Mather.