صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

Missionary Entelligence.


LETTER from the Rev. Alfred Edersheim to
William Cook, Esq., London:-

Jassy, Dec. 18, 1846.

MY VERY DEAR SIR,-I hope and trust that you will not have altogether forgotten the person who now intrudes upon your time, and that you remember him even sometimes at a throne of grace. I, for my part, though I passed through many countries, saw much, was tried much-would I could say, was taught much-have never lost out of memory the kindness and the interest so many respected Christian brethren manifested during my last stay in London. In fact, when in the field, one oftener than you at home can fancy, needs a cheering and an encouragement, and how useful and comfortable are these remembrances of the sympathy and prayers of Christ's true children! I would not be acting faithfully or speaking the truth, were I to say that a missionary is anything like an unhappy man ;much the contrary-but this, I believe, arises mainly from God making His grace always sufficient for us. How blessed, when shut out from all intercourse with brethren, when alone in the midst of open and secret enemies, false disciples, made a scorn and a laughing-stock of Jew and Greek, no man near to help or advise, no man to sympathize or help us to bear the trial, little or no apparent success, how blessed at such seasons to lock one's-self into one's closet, and meditate and pray over such passages as Ps. xci., or Ps. xlvi., or lxxi., lxxii., lxxiii! How sweet to be taught by the Lord; but for a hungering and thirsting after the Lord, a real panting after his grace, how certainly will all our desires be satisfied! The first few months of my missionary activity I was quite alone in the most difficult of our stations, having, besides my duties as missionary, also for six weeks those of Pastor of the German Protestant congregation here. You may fancy that this was no light time for me. I do not mention secondary difficulties such as the relaxing influence the heat has at first upon foreigners, that I had to preach three times every Sabbath, and at least twice in the week, that I was quite lonely, &c.;but such as these: my inexperience of and incompetency for the work, the utter deadness and often open enmity of the Protestants here, the number of Jews (40,000), and many, many more, the mention of which would be, perhaps, tiresome and disagreeable to you; but the Lord has delivered me out of all of them. At the moment I write you, the more able and experienced brethren, who have for the last six years published the Gospel here, have long joined me again. Our brother, the German Pastor, is also a comfort to us. Signs of real good are appearing, and though

there be much in us and about us to make us

very sad, yet there are also some things to make us glad. There is, perhaps, at least to my knowledge, no station where a missionary has to contend with more difficulties, but none also where one has more opportunities of declaring Jesus. The number of Jews is daily swelling; none hinder us; we visit every week from house to house; of a hundred Jews, perhaps one refuses to accept of a tract; often have I seen them running behind us begging for tracts or a New Testament; our meetings are well attended, and there is no misgiving (among the Jews at least) as to our real object in coming here, viz., to win souls unto Jesus. I have been preaching in market-places, streets, public

houses, shops, and not unfrequently do I hear
Jews confess their belief that Jesus is the
Messiah. But to come forward and take his
cross is a more difficult thing than our
brethren at home can imagine. Our first prin-
ciple in dealing with the Jews is: "Gold and
silver have I none," &c. Not the least temporal
aid and assistance or prospect is held out; on
It is true that we find it
the contrary.

necessary, as there are numbers here who
have either no trade at all or an unlawful
one, to bind our inquirers and converts as
apprentices to some workmen; but if they are
not sincere and stedfast the hard working soon
drives them away. They have next not only
to leave their families, &c., to contend against
the strongest natural ties, parents, wives, and
children, who all without exception hate
them; but they are in bodily danger also. How
loudly does this strong and fiery trial of tried
faith call upon true believers at home to be
incessant in prayer for them, and upon mere
professors to try their ways and the founda-
tion they are built upon! Would you like
thoroughly to know the state of the Jews,
and what difficulties and encouragements
missionary exertions to them have, I would
advise you to come and see us here. I am
sure an excursion here would be well worth
your while. Our mission here chiefly consists
of the following parts: direct missionary
labours, preaching twice on the Sabbath,
and once in the week and other meetings,
visiting from house to house, seeing visitors,
instructing catechumens, (eight at present,)
two of whom we hope (D.V.) shortly to
baptize; and co-operation with the German
Pastor, then the schools, the working insti-
tution with four Jewish apprentices, and the
medical dispensary, Sabbath schools, &c., &c.
There are daily several Jews visiting us; often
the whole day long we have discussions;
sometimes a defender of their faith is brought
forward. Of all the Jews baptized here but
a comparatively small number has stood, but
these are, thanks to heavenly grace, real men
of God, tried believers. Though their
number is small, yet how precious even one
soul won to Christ, and how great the force
of their example and admonitions both upon
Jew and Gentile! Thus a catechumen (under
instruction with me) was the means of
awakening his master, who now, though a
Protestant, comes regularly to take instruc-
tion and speak about the things belonging to
his peace, and of reforming at least the moral
conduct of one of his fellow-journeymen.
Allow me to entreat your prayers especially
for him: his name is Benjamin, a bookbinder
by trade. Disgusted with the looseness of
principle and immorality, to which Judaism
offers no barrier, he came some weeks
me for instruction. The progress the young
man has made during this time is almost in-
credible, but as yet no signs of real grace are
appearing, though his mind seems convinced
of the different truths set forth in the Gospel,
and he can defend every one most logically;
He says he has begun to pray, and has, I
believe, some little anxiety after grace. The
Lord perfect his work and glorify Himself!
But I really must stop, for I feel it is
impossible to enter into full details of all
things here, and a slight glance at them
would scarcely afford any interest. I can
only repeat our earnest desire here that the
brethren at home would continue in earnest
supplication for Jassy. Would you know how
important we feel your prayers, we would
have a greater blessing from on high on our
weak exertions.

ago to

Yours, in the Master's service, ·


(From an American Journal, the "Presby-
terian," of the 28th November.)
THE following letter from a missionary
affords new and recent information regard-
ing Madeira, and the labours of Dr. Kalley:
"Port of Spain, Trinidad,

19th Sept., 1846.
"My dear Pastor,-I write to you at
present, in relation to the Madeira people,
who arrived here the other day. You have
no doubt heard of Dr. Kalley's having to flee
for his life, as also of his followers being
so persecuted as to take refuge in the
mountains. By the providence of God, 190
of those people got on board the ship
William, bound for this island. The Dal-
housie, it is stated, will bring a greater
number shortly. They seem an intelligent
and an industrious people. They all have
the Holy Scriptures in their possession,
which they seem to value above all price. It
is a great wonder that they were not all sent
off immediately on their arrival here to the
sugar plantations. The first notice taken of
them here as Protestants, was by my fellow
missionary, Mr. G. Cowen; he brought be
tween thirty and forty of them to our chapel,
They had no interpreter. We could, how-
ever, learn that they were Kalley's people;
that they sought liberty to worship Jesus
Christ according to God's word. We gave
them a little feast of tea, coffee, &c. I could
not help weeping with pure joy. We en
gaged to take a few of them for a time.
Towards evening I went to the Presbyterian
missionary, Mr. Kennedy, and got him to
engage three of them. We had information
that the William was to sail next morning
with all the people who had not found en-
gagements, for the purpose of employing
them in field labour, for which they are
totally unfitted. In consequence, early next
morning Mr. Kennedy and I went to the
ship, and then to Lord Harris, the Governor,
to have the people detained for a time. We
succeeded in this. Now the most of the
people are located in Port of Spain and
neighbourhood. They have special claims
upon the Christian public. One of the men
that I have, was imprisoned twenty months
for being a Protestant; also one of the
females with us was a servant to Dr. Kalley.
Though the people's condition as to this
world is distressing, the reading of the Bible
and communion with heaven makes them
manifest a happy spirit. The people at home
must do something for them; we shall do
the utmost in our power. We intend to draw
up a Petition to the Governor, to grant them
a large piece of land, on which to form a
settlement. Please if you know Dr. Kalley
or any of his friends, let the particulars of
this communication be made known to him or
them. I am unable to write more. I shall
write to you again by next mail. Mrs. Law
joins me in kindest regard to yourself and
family. We are both well and happy in the
work of the Lord.-I am, yours in Jesus,


EXPERIENCE is indeed a strong demonstration, and it is such a witness as leaves no room for debate; for here the truth is felt, proved, and acted on the heart, which the Christian knoweth well, and is as sure of as he is persuaded that he liveth, or that the sun when it shineth hath life and warmness therewith.-Fleming.

THE law presseth on a man till he flies to Christ; then it says, Thou hast gotten a refuge, I forbear to follow thee; thou art wise, thou art safe.-Bengelius.



WEEP not! because the fair young bud hath faded,
That in its opening glory smil'd so bright,
Though sorrow's sweeping cloud hath darkly shaded
The starlike beam, which cheer'd our lonely night!
For He, who gave such sweetness to the flower,
And made the silvery ray so pure appear,
Sheds sunlight o'er Affliction's gloomy hour,
Upholds the fainting heart, and dries the tear.
Weep not! sad mourner! though, to thee, no longer
Earth yields that cherish'd form, to be thy stay;
There is an Arm, far mightier and far stronger,

Will guide thine aged steps, through Life's dark way!
Best on that Power Divine, while sorrow welling
Streams from the fountain of thy bleeding heart,—

being Saturday; and the rest were issued at intervals, varying from a week to a month, till March 24, 1657, the whole thus extending over a space of a year and three months. "All accounts agree in stating that the impression produced by the Provincials,' on their first appearance, was quite unexampled. They were circulated in thousands in Paris and throughout France, Speaking of the first letter, Father Daniel says, 'It created a fracas which filled the fathers of the Society with consternation. Never did the Post-office reap greater profits; copies were despatched over the whole kingdom: and I myself, though very little known to the gentlemen of Port Royal, received a large packet of them, postresiding. The same method was followed with the rest of the Letters. The seventh found its way to Cardinal Mazarin, who

Fear not, when Death's cold waves are round thee paid, in a town of Brittany where I was then


That heavenly strength will still its aid impart. Weep not although no gladsome voice is cheering Thy household labours, or thy lonely hearth,

Though well thou know'st no more those tones endearing laughed over it very heartily. The eighth did

Shall e'er be heard, by thee, again, on earth. Think not her gentle notes are hush'd for ever; Upon thy joyous ear, they yet will rise

In that bright land, where lov'd ones never sever,

not appear till a month after its predecessor, apparently to keep up expectation. In short, everybody read the Little Letters,' and, whatever might be their opinions of the points in dispute, all agreed in admiring the genius While in that song, through Heaven's high arches thrilling, which they displayed. They were found lying

Beyond the splendour of those beaming skies!

Ah! who can tell the rapture that is filling,

The bliss now flowing through her sinless heart,

She bears her grateful and triumphant part! We will not weep then, that to endless glory

Our treasur'd Gem hath gently been convey'd ; Rather be ours the joy to spread His story, On whom were all our griefs and sorrows laid.


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WHEN the "Provincial Letters" first came out in 1656, Jesuitism was at the height of its power, and seemed secure from all opposition. In vain Protestants had reasoned against the system; in vain Catholics had sought to interpose checks to the dominancy of the Order in the Church; in vain had statesmen endeavoured to guard against the seizure of political powers by a Society whose interests were separate from those of the countries where they lived. In almost every country in Europe; their power and influence were supreme. It was then that Pascal attacked them, and his letters, as they successively appeared, dealt such heavy blows to the system, that from that time the influence of the Jesuits declined, and never in France, at least, is likely to be again dominant.

In the present time, when Jesuitism is making such strong efforts to recover its former ground, it is well that Pascal's letters be again brought prominently before the public. In England two translations only have yet appeared, one in 1657, the other in 1816, both giving most imperfect ideas of the original. The present translation is done with much faithfulness and spirit, and is enriched with valuable Notes and an Historical Introduction by Mr. M'Crie.

The following extracts are from the Introduction :

"Pascal, with the native superiority of genius, pitched on the very tone which was calculated to arrest the public mind. Treating theology in a style entirely new, he brought down the subject to the comprehension of all, and translated into the pleasantries of comedy, and the familiarities of dialogue, discussions which had till then been confined to the grave utterance of the school. The framework which he adopted in his first letter was exceedingly happy. A Parisian is supposed to transmit to one of his friends in the Provinces an account of the disputes of the day. Hence arose the name of the Provincials which was given to the rest of the Letters.

"The letters were published anonymously, under the fictitious signature of Louis de Montalte,' and the greatest care was taken to preserve the secret of their authorship. The first letter appeared January 13, 1656, being on a Wednesday; the second on January 29,

on the merchant's counter, the lawyer's desk, the doctor's table, the lady's toilet; and everywhere they were sought for and perused with the same avidity. The success of the Letters in gaining their object was not less extraordinary. The Jesuits were fairly checkmated; and though they succeeded in carrying through the censure of Arnauld, the public sympathy was enlisted in his favour. The confessionals and churches of the Jesuits were deserted, while those of their opponents were crowded with admiring thousands. 'That book alone,' says one of its bitterest enemies, has done more for the Jansenists than the Augustinus" of Jansen, and all the works of Arnauld put together.' This is the more surprising when we consider, that at the time, the influence of the Jesuits was so high in the ascendant, that Arnauld had to contend with the pope, the king, the chancellor, the clergy, the Sorbonne, the Universities, and the great Jansenism at a lower ebb, or more generally body of the populace; and that never anathematized than when the first Provincial Letter appeared.


high encomium of Voltaire is well known: The "Provincial Letters" were models of eloquence and pleasantry. The best comedies of Molière have not more wit in them than

the first Letters; Bossuet has nothing more sublime than the last ones.' Again, the same writer says, "The first work of genius. that appeared in prose was the collection of the "Provincial Letters." Examples of every species of eloquence may there be found. There is not a single word in it which, after a hundred years, has ndergone the change to which all living languages are liable. We may refer to this work, the era when our language became fixed. The Bishop of Luon told me, that having asked the Bishop of Meaux, what work he would wish most to have been the author of, setting his own aside? Bossuet instantly replied, the "Provincial Letters!" Pascal succeeded beyond all expression,' says D'Alembert; several of his bon mots have become proverbial in our language, and the "Provincials" will be ever regarded as a model of taste and style.' To this day the same high eulogiums are passed on the work by the best scholars of France."—Introduction, Pp. liii., liv.

The North British Review. February, 1847.

No. 12. Edinburgh: W. P. Kennedy; London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co. We hope that most of our readers are now acquainted with the " North British Review." It is the freshest, the most powerful, and the most truly Catholic of its cotemporaries. In general interest the present number yields to none of its predecessors; and there is one article of such pre-eminent eloquence and acumen as to be worth the price of the whole, we mean the opening article on Modern Philosophy. So desirable is it that the large information, the sound and enlightened views, and the Christian principles of this noble periodical should circulate through all our members, that we trust it will find a place in every congregational library, and those who cannot command it entirely for themselves, will combine in twos and threes, so as to secure its stated perusal.

Madeira; or, the Spirit of Antichrist in 1846,

Pp. 103. By J. Roddam Tate, R.N. Lon don: Nisbet and Co., Berners-street. "This, however, was not all. Besides having WE advise all who feel interested in the the tide of public favour turned against them, subject of the persecutions in Madeira, and in the Jesuits found themselves the objects of the cause of Protestantism, to read this little universal derision. The names of their work. It contains a narrative of the outrages favourite casuits were converted into perpetrated in August last on British subjects proverbs: Escobarder came to signify the same and Portuguese Protestant Christians, through thing with 'paltering in a double sense; the instigation of Popery in that island. The Father Bauny's grotesque maxims furnished author was an eye-witness of the scenes detopics for perpetual badinage; and the Jesuits, scribed by him, and comments on them in the wherever they went, were assailed with inex-style and spirit of a British sailor and earnest tinguishable laughter. By no other method Christian. could Pascal have so severely stung this proud and self-conceited Society. The rage into which they were thrown was extreme, and was variously expressed. At one time it found vent in calumnies and threats of vengeance. At other times they indulged in puerile lamentations. It was amusing to hear these stalwart divines, after breathing fire and slaughter against their enemies, assume the querulous tone of injured and oppressed innocence.

"The literary merits of the Provincials' have been universally acknowledged and applauded. On this point, where Pascal's countrymen must be considered the most competent judges, we have the testimonies of the leading spirits of France. Boileau pronounced it a work that has surpassed at once the ancients and the moderns.' Perrault has given a similar judgment: There is more wit in these eighteen letters than in "Plato's Dialogues; "more delicate and artful raillery than in those of Lucian; and more strength and ingenuity of reasoning than in the "Orations of Cicero." We have nothing more beautiful in this species of writing! Pascal's style,' says the Abbé d'Artigny, has never been surpassed, nor perhaps equalled.' The


WE are happy to learn, that the Secretaries of the London Missionary Society have lately received intelligence from Medagascar of a very cheering character,--the. more cheering, as, from the fierce persecu tion directed by the Queen against all who dared to profess Christianity, in addition to

the other difficulties which hindered the re

ception of the Gospel, many had almost abandoned all hope of immediate food for that island. About a hundred of the natives have been converted; and, more striking still, Rakotondredama, the Queen's only son, and heir apparent to the throne, has embraced the truth, and (although only seventeen years prudence, courage, and stedfastness in his of age) has already manifested admirable adherence to Christianity. Through his influence the lives of twenty-one believers who were doomed to martyrdom have been preserved; and his religious progress is represented by the latest accounts as rnost satisfac tory.


THE following sums were paid out of the Charity
funds under orders of Court in the suit Attorney-
General, v. Shore, being the suit against the
Unitarians, viz.:

Trustees' Costs allowed them on passing their
acts up to and including the Vice-Chan-
cellor's Decree.....

Relator's Costs up to same period..........
Relator's Costs on appeal
Allowed to the Trustees' Counsels fees, &c.,
on fruitless hearing before Lord Brougham
Relator's extra Costs in the House of Lords
One set of Costs allowed to the two sets of
Presbyterian petitioners (being the third

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£. s. d.

1698 17 9

1164 17 8

504 11 4
779 4 7

1972 11 5
1357 1 1

49 18 2
98 17 8
10,393 17 0


DUTIES in their performance drawn out to
such a length as to beget wearisomeness and
satiety, tend not to edification, nor do any
way promote the sanctification of the name of
God in the worship itself. Regard, therefore,
1984 18 6 in all such performances is to be had unto the
weakness of the natural constitution of some,
and indisposition of others, who are not able
to abide in the outward part of duties, as
others can. And there is no wise shep-
herd, but will rather suffer the stronger
sheep of his flock to lose somewhat of what
782 18 10 they might reach to in his guidance of these,
than to compel the weaker to keep pace with
them to their hurt, and it may be their ruin.
Better a great number should complain of the
shortness of some duties who have strength
and desires for a longer continuance in them,
than that a few who are sincere should be
really discouraged by being overburdened,
and have the service thereby made useless
unto them. I always loved in sacred duties
290 3 6 that observation of Seneca concerning the
orations of Cassius Severus, when they heard
him, timebamus ne desineret, 'we were afraid
that he would end.' Regard is to be had
291 14 2 also to the spiritual edge of the affections of
men, which ought to be whetted, and not
through tediousness in duties abated and
taken off.-Dr. Owen.

240 4 4

In addition to the foregoing there are the Receiver's poundage, his costs, and the Relator's, and Attorney-General's, and other costs, which have been allowed on passing the Receiver's accounts, by order of the Master, viz.:In first account-Poundage.. 158 O 0 Costs 132 3 6 In second account-Poundage 158 0 0 Costs 82 4 4 In third account-Poundage 157 12 8 Costs 432 9 9 In fourth account-Pondage 155 4 0 Costs 136 10 2 In fifth account-Poundage.. 159 1 4 Costs 61 6.11 15818-9 140 15 11 159 15 1 137 17 4

In sixth account-Poundage



In seventh account-Poundage



Court Costs brought from above

590 2 5

220 8 3

299 14 8

237 12 6

2229 19 9 10393 17 0 £12,623 16 9

The above 12,6231. 16s. 9d. has all come out of the Charity funds.

In addition to this, the Original Defendants (the Trustees) had to pay out of their own pockets the Costs of the appeal to the Lord Chancellor, and considerable extra Costs which were agreed at.....

They also paid the Relator's taxed Costs in the House of Lords

Their own Costs.......................................... The two sets of Orthodox Petitioners were only allowed one set of Costs between them, and consequently had to subscribe out of their own pockets about

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The poundage allowed to the receiver (who is one of the complainants' solicitors in the new litigation commenced by the Independents) is after the rate of 51. per cent.; so that an accurate estimate can be made of the annual income of these Charities.

Lord Cottenham, in his speech on the Dissenters' Act of 1844, stated, "There is now pending in the Court of Chancery a new suit instituted by some denomination of Dissenters who think they can make out a case there which they did not make out in the Master's Office."

And Sir Wm. Follett, in his speech on the same Act, stated," The parties litigating for the benefits of that Charity have not been content with contesting their rights in the Master's Office, but a fresh information has been filed on behalf of the Independents, alleging that the Presbyterians do not agree in doctrine with the doctrine of the founders of that chapel, and that they are no more entitled to the benefit of that Charity than the Unitarians, and therefore that suit may now probably go through all its stages in litigation, and may last another fourteen years, if the funds of the Charity are found to be sufficient, before any ultimate decision is come to as to the parties entitled to the property."

IN St. Paul's prayer for the Colossians, we find him first giving thanks for three things he had heard:The hope laid up for them in heaven, their faith in Christ Jesus, their love to all the saints.

IT was said of a French Christian, from reading of Christ he went to Christ; and from being with Christ, he went forth among men for Christ.




GREAT CORAM-STREET, BRUNSWICK-SQUARE, ISS RICHARDS avails herself of this opportunity to express her sense of the kind approbation which her plan of EDUCATION has elicited, and she trusts that by pursuing the same course of systematic Instruction, enlivened and aided by the introduction of the various methods continue to receive assurances of her successful rendered available by modern improvements, to endeavours to promote the intellectual and moral welfare of those entrusted to her guidance.

References kindly permitted to the Rev. J. H. Evans, Hampstead; and Rev. J. Hamilton, 7, Lansdowne-place, Brunswick-square.

21, Berners-street, March, 1847. AMES NISBET and CO. have just published: -


In foolscap 8vo., price 5s, cloth boards, PROPHETICAL LANDMARKS; containing data for helping to determine the Question of Christ's; Pre-millennial Advent. "O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things!"-Dan. xii. 8.

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Also, by the same Author, The Thirtieth Thousand, in 18mo., price ls. 6d. cloth boards,

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In foolscap 8vo., price 5s. cloth,
NATION; or, a Plea for Religion: addressed to
all Persons engaged in the Maritime Service of
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of the Force, the Royal Navy.

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In post 8vo., cloth, with Illustrations, price 8s. 6d.,
CUS; Expository and Practical; with Critical
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EM OF TEAS. This Tea is consigned


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Printed by ALEXANDER MACINTOSH, of No. 20, Great New
street, Fetter-lane, London, and published by JAMES
MACINTOSH, of No. 47, Church-road, De Beauvoir-
square, in the parish of Hackney, at the Office, No. 16,
Exeter Hall, Strand, London. Monday, March 1,1847.
Sold by HAMILTON, ADAMS, and Co., Paternoster-row;
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Stamped (to go post-free).... Four Shillings.
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Advertisements received not later than the 20th of each







THE great thing in the Church is Christ, the eternal deity of Christ, the blood of Christ, the Spirit of Christ, the presence of Christ among us. The great thing is Christ, but there is also advantage in a certain government of the Church. I am a Presbyterian, not only of situation, but of conviction and choice. Our Presbyterian way is the good middle way between Episcopacy on the one side, and Congregationalism on the other. We combine the two great principles that must be maintained in the Church-Order and Liberty: the order of government, and the liberty of the people.-MERLE D'AUBIGNE.

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In the system of INDEPENDENCY he evil of Prelacy is shunned, but the pposite extreme is run into; and the rethren are not only all equal, but inde

endent of one another.

This principle, of the tendency to pass om one extreme to another, will account r most of the anomalies of Independency r Congregationalism, and will explain how England so many good and learned men ave been driven past the sound and scripiral position of Presbyterianism. How is it at in England alone of Protestant lands Inpendency has so remarkably flourished? It because the Church of England alone of the

hurches of the Reformation has retained e Romish system of Prelacy. How is it at in England more than any other country

hism and sectarianism has abounded? It because ecclesiastical tyranny has been


more stringent than in any other Church, calling itself Protestant. The rigour of the measures adopted to secure ecclesiastical order gave rise to the more strenuous efforts for attaining Christian liberty. But, in revolting from the one extreme of uni formity, many of the Puritans in Queen Elizabeth's time passed to the other extreme of Independency.

At first they were called Brownists, from one Robert Brown, a preacher in the diocese of Norwich, who, according to Neale, was "a fiery hot-headed young man, who went about the country inveighing against the discipline and ceremonies of the Church, and exhorting the people by no means to comply with them." He was frequently put into prison, from which the intercession of some powerful relatives obtained his release; and he afterwards was forced to leave the kingdom, when he settled at Middleburg in Zealand, and with other exiles formed a Congregational Church according to his own model. "But when this handful of people were delivered from their oppressors the bishops, they crumbled into parties among themselves, insomuch that Brown, being weary of his office, returned into England, and having renounced his principles of separation, became rector of a Church in Northamptonshire, where he lived an idle and dissolute life, and at last died in Northampton jail." The system promulgated by Brown was afterwards adopted by abler and better men, who rejected many of his extravagant views. These principles, so far as they agree with the Independents of the present day, were the following:

They apprehended, according to Scripture, that every Church ought to be confined with

* Neale's " History of the Puritans," c. iv., vol. i.,

p. 205.

in the limits of a single congregation, and that the Government should be democratical. When a Church was to be gathered, such as desired to be members made a confession of their faith, and signed an agreement to walk together in the order of the Gospel, according to certain rules therein contained. The whole power of admitting and excluding members, with the deciding of controversies, was in the brotherhood. Their ministers and Church officers were created by the vote of the brotherhood, who gave authority for preaching, and administering the sacraments among them, and the same power could discharge from the office thus given. One Church might not exercise jurisdiction or authority over another, but each might give the other counsel, advice, or admonition, if such seemed necessary. "In short, every Church or Society of Christians meeting in one place, was, according to the Brownists, a body corporate, having full power within itself to admit and exclude members, to choose and ordain officers; and when the good of the society required it, to depose them without being accountable to any jurisdiction whatsoever." Neale, vol. i., p. 207.

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This system of Church polity Presbyterians regard not only as oppposed to Scripture, but unsanctioned by the practices of the primitive Church, and contrary to all the analogies of nature. This latter point is thus put by Dr. Vaughan, the learned Principal of one of the Independent Colleges :-" It has been my feeling from the time when I became a Congregationalist to this day, that the weak side of Independency is its want of cohesiveness, the want of definite, cordial, and effective unity. Independency in the abstract is a most unnatural, unlovely thing. It has no place in the works of God. Throughout the

physical universe there is not a thing existing | oversight and rule, while others also publicly | courts every case may obtain full and imparfrom itself, by itself, or for itself. Creation laboured in word and doctrine; in other tial consideration, and the mature judgment is a sublime development of the great law of words, there are teaching and ruling elders, relation and affinity. As it is in the physical, the office of the former being to preach the so is it in the moral; as it is in the na- Gospel and administer the sacraments; that tural, so is it in the revealed; as it is in of the latter, along with the pastor, to aid in the spiritual in the Gospel, so must it the government of the Church, the spiritual be in the institutional there. Independency superintendence of congregations, and other would be a monster in God's universe, if it duties of the eldership. The apostle Paul tended to isolation, rather than to relation, referring to this distinction in the eldership in affinity, unity." Such were the sentiments 1 Tim. v. 17, says, "Let the elders that rufe uttered before "the Congregational Union of well be counted worthy of double honour, England and Wales," a body formed under especially they who labour in the word and the felt evils of Independency, and with the doctrine." In the care of the poor, and in the view of obtaining something of that unity, temporal affairs of the Church, the elders are which, in a regular and scriptural way, Pres- assisted, as in apostolic times, by Deacons. byterianism affords.

That Congregationalism was not the Constitution of the primitive Church is plain from the xvth chapter of the Acts and other parts of the New Testament. We know also, from early ecclesiastical history, that it was not the way for every Church to be self-dependent and self-governing, each looking on its own things and not on the things of others. Their common faith, their common interests, their common dangers, tended to keep them to the scriptural way of Presbyterianism. And when the time of falling away from primitive order did come, the tendency was not to isolation and independency, but to centralization and prelacy,-congregational episcopacy giving place to diocesan prelacy, and that finding its legitimate consummation in the Papal supremacy.

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These are all the office-bearers that we believe to be permanent in the Church of Christ, for we reject the doctrine of apostolical succession, that is, the existence in the Church of any successors of the inspired apostles and evangelists, and the other extraordinary officers who existed for special work, and with special miraculous gifts, at the first institution of the Church.



of the whole Church is obtained for any matters brought up for counsel and decision. We have our authority for this in the xvth chapter of the Acts. There we read that difficult question had arisen in the Church at Antioch, and no small dispute and discussion taking place, the elders did what every Presbyterian Church does now under similar circumstances, they resolved to refer the matter to a synod of apostles and elders which met at Jerusalem, when the question was not decided by apostolic authority, but after free and open deliberation, and the decision, which at last was come to, was sent down to Añtioch and other churches.

Presbyterianism maintains aright the posi tion both of the office-bearers and members of the Church; preserves the scriptural distinction between the rulers and the ruled (Heb. xiii. 7); it gives protection to the people from undue domination, and at the same time protection to the pastor from undue popular controul; under it too the various congregations are knit together in mutual depend ence and sympathy, the strong helping and bearing the burden of the weak, the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, with one mind striving together for the faith of the Gospel.

With regard to the official equality of our ministers, we hold what is called Presbyterian parity, none possessing superiority of rank or order over others, but all being equal as brethren, having one master, even Christ. "Jesus called them to him and said, 'Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and "Our Presbyterian way, (says Merle their great ones exercise authority upon D'Aubigné, the historian of the Reformathem. But so it shall not be among you. One tion), is the good middle way between EpiscoIn order to prevent further interruption in is your master, even Christ, and all ye are pacy on the one hand, and Congregationalism our historical narrative, it may be well here brethren."" Mark x. 42, 43; Matt. xxiii. 8. on the other; we combine the two great princito state some of the leading principles of the In so far as it is distinguished from the In-ples that must be maintained in the Church, Presbyterian polity, as distinctive from Epis- dependent system, Presbyterianism combines ORDER and LIBERTY, the order of governcopacy on the one hand, and Congrega- congregational and local liberty, with centralment, and the liberty of the people." tionalism on the other. Such are the go- government and unity of action. vernment of the Church by Presbyters or congregation is free and independent in its Elders; the official parity and mutual sub-local government and discipline, in the elecjection and superintendence of the ministers; tion of its officebearers, in devising and the successive and subordinate jurisdiction of executing its plans of Christian usefulness, Church Courts; the combination of local and and in the whole management of its affairs, congregational liberty with central govern- so long as its acts are not inconsistent with ment and unity of action. the general rules, and with the common weal of the Church. In all good government, civil or ecclesiastical, there is some central authority to confirm or to regulate local liberty. This superintendence is exercised by each Presbytery over the several congregations within its bounds. The people, that is to say, the members of each Church, manage their affairs in the only wise and practicable way among large bodies of men, by representative government, that is, through officebearers chosen by them, who form the Church session.

In so far as we differ from Episcopacy, or rather Prelacy, we hold, from the word of God, the identity of Presbyters and Bishops, which were only different names for the same office. For instance, in Acts, ch. xx. 17—28, when Paul called the Elders (Presbyters) of the Ephesian Church, he charged them to take heed to the flock over which the Holy Ghost had made them overseers (Bishops). So also in the epistle to Titus, i. 5-7. "I left thee that thou shouldst ordain Presbyters... if any be blameless . . . for a bishop must be blameless." The Apostle Peter too, in his 1st Epistle, ch. v. 1, the Elders, or Presbyters, that are among you I exhort, who am also a Presbyter; feed the flock of God which are among you, taking the oversight thereof (in the Greck episcopizing, being bishops thereof),-not as lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock. Of Presbyters or Elders there were two classes, some who only exercised spiritual

AGAINST PERSECUTION.-It is true, for the most part, there is an interposition of corrupt the truth. With these are they tossed up affections seducing the minds of men from and down, and so driven with the winds of temptations that befal them. But is it humanity to stand on the shore, and seeing men in a storm at sea, wherein they are ready every moment to be cast away and shoot them to death, or to cast fire into their perish, to storm at them ourselves, or to vessel, because they are in danger of being drowned? Yet, no otherwise do we deal with them whom we persecute, because they miss the knowledge of the truth, and it may be, raise a worse storm in ourselves, as to our intellectuals (Jude 22, 23.)—Dr. Owen. own morals, than they suffer under in their

BE YE ALSO READY.-Meanwhile, trim your lamps, be ready for the Lord is at hand. The preparation for his coming is not knowledge of the time, but character-holy charac A Presbytery is formed by the minister ter; we expect no stop to man's business; just and a representative elder from each of the as it was in the days of Noah, as in the days Churches within its bounds; while Synods or world-no removal of errors;-but "perilous of Lot: we expect no conversion of the Assemblies are composed of ministers and times," and evil men and seducers waxing elders of Churches in a larger district or pro-worse and worse: like a flash of lightning i vince. In cases of difficulty reference may be like a thief, as a snare; so shall he come upon. made, and in disputes appeal may be taken, a sleepy world. Now then, "little children, abide in him, that when he shall appear, we from a session to a presbytery, and from a may have confidence, and not be ashamed presbytery to a synod or assembly of the before him at his coming." "Even so, come Church. By this succession of Church Lord Jesus."

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