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THE great thing in the Church is Christ, the eternal deity of Christ, the blood of Christ, the Spirit of Christ, the presence of Christ among us. The great thing is Christ, but there is also advantage in a certain government of the Church. I am a Presbyterian, not only of situation, but of conviction and choice. Our Presbyterian way is the good middle way between Episcopacy on the one side, and Congregationalism on the other. We combine the two great principles that must be maintained in the Church-Order and Liberty: the order of government, and the liberty of the people.--MERLE D'AUBIGNE.

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520 | Presbytery of London ............................
of Lancashire
of Berwick.............. .. .. .. .. ......
Commission of Synod


THE third Sabbath of this month (the 21st)
is the day appointed by Synod for making a
collection in aid of the funds of the College.
The importance of the Institution has already
been demonstrated. A school of the
phets is essential to the permanence of our
Church and the dissemination of our prin-
ciples in this land. The Church has always
responded to the appeals made to her on
behalf of this Institution, and we trust the
collections of the 21st will evince that the
interest felt in the education of our future
pastors has suffered no diminution. Never
was there a louder call for labourers to enter
into the vineyard.
“ Come over and help," |
is the cry of perishing multitudes in all
regions of the earth. There is in this country
itself much land yet to be possessed; many
thousands wandering as sheep without a
shepherd, and perishing ignorant of God and
his Christ. The cry is loud and piercing.
Let our Church, then, acquit her of her
obligations and co-operate with her sisters
around in sending forth ministers fully
equipped for the spheres assigned them.
The Treasurers of the Fund are WILLIAM
Esq., London.






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street is thronged with gay groups and splendid equipages, and the contrast will be the more striking. Or if we take the quarter a little further to the east, toward Soho-square, | of the happy visitors that crowd the Bazaar, which they have reached by driving along the great thoroughfares, how few are aware of the scenes of tragic misery that are acting within pistol-shot of the place! In some of the courts and streets of Wardour-street, such as Peter-street and its dependencies, there are places as horrible as could be found in the whole circle of the metropolitan police. Some of the recent improvements, such as the opening up of New Oxford-street, and Endellstreet, have rather increased than diminished their old haunts, have taken refuge in places the evil, because the people, driven out of equally poor, which are now more crowded and miserable than ever. What with filth and disease, poverty and vice, the condition | of the crowded population of districts like this, calls loudly for public interference. may know places, whether in London or Manchester, or elsewhere, equally bad; but we instance the locality with which we happen to be best acquainted. We have gone into rooms where the noisome atmosphere was so sickening that it was impossible to remain without fainting, or some worse effect. The poor people get inured somewhat to this, and their pale and poisoned blood is sufficiently oxygenated by such pestilential air. But their weakened and broken constitutions are made the ready prey of disease and death. The children grow up sickly and degenerate. And we find too commonly that wretchedness and vice go together, and that this neglect of the things IN going down Regent-street, from Oxfordof the body is too often saddened the more by a total neglect of the soul. Where there is street toward the Quadrant, if a stranger such utter degradation and chilling penury, it turn aside to the left through Foubert's-is impossible to get the people to listen to Chapel-court, he will soon find himself in a region of wretchedness and poverty, little expected in that quarter of London. Let the visit be made on some fine afternoon in the winter season, when the great

place, or


the Gospel or attend to the word of God,
without first ministering to their temporal
wants and improving their outward condition.
Typhus fever is alarmingly prevalent at this
time in many of our great towns, and will
probably increase as the winter months come

The importance of Christianizing the Mass of the
Population as an element of National Stability and



527 ib.

on, with their privations and hardships to the poor. It seems too that the cholera is again advancing with steady marches toward our island. All observation proves that the prevalence and fatality of these diseases depend much on the usual cleanliness and sanitary state of the locality. During the former visit of the cholera, the mortality in many parts of London was fully fifty per cent., while in other places not more than a fifth or sixth of the cases proved fatal. The sanitary condition of the metropolis is not much improved since that time. Deficient sewerage in the streets; overflowing cesspools in the courts and houses; over-filled graveyards in the heart of the city; overcrowded and badly ventilated and injudiciously applied parochial relief; over dwellings of the working classes; insufficient these and many other sources of mischief, private individuals or Christian congregations have no control; but they are so connected with the personal condition and habits of the poor, that public interference in such physical matters would greatly aid our efforts towards the removal of the moral causes of the misery of our town population.

Our object in introducing the subject is, that the health of towns is likely to engage the early attention of the new Parliament,

and we wish all our readers to be interested in the question, and to promote the agitation of it, until effective sanitary measures are adopted. There is no reason why the police regulations of the country should not extend to the preservation of the health as well as of the limbs and property of the lieges. If the benefits of good government ought to reach all classes of society, let it be remembered that protection given to the health of the working man is as essential to him, as protection of property is to his richer neighbour. And this mercy will be twice blessed; the condition of the poor being bettered, in consequence thereof the rich will be saved from the dangerous spread of contagious disease, and from the expense of increased parochial rates, to which they are exposed by the continuance of so much unheeded misery in their neighbourhoods.


WE had the privilege of being present at the last general meeting of the deacons of the London Presbytery, held at 16, Exeter Hall, on Friday evening, October 8. The object of these meetings, we may mention, is to bring together the deacons of our different churches, as Christian men to enjoy communion in religious exercises, and as Presbyterian office-bearers to deliberate on matters bearing on the prosperity of the London congregations, and the general interests of our Church. Although their proceedings have no official authority, yet it is plain that the greatest public benefit must result from such an Association. The deacons being intimately acquainted with the affairs of their several congregations, and especially with those matters that do. not come so much before the Presbytery and other spiritual courts, these general meetings may be usefully taken advantage of for bringing forward questions affecting the outward welfare of our churches, or any matters of ecclesiastical economy where common counsel or united action is desirable. That work which the London Lay Union so efficiently did, in the early period of the re-organizing of our Church, can now best be done by the United Deacons' Courts; and we recommend to our friends in other Presbyteries to obtain, if practicable, some similar provision for the occasional meeting together of the lay officebearers of their several churches. Much interesting and valuable information may be thus mutually imparted; suggestions may be thrown out for promoting the common weal; and plans that have been found successful in the management of one church may be explained and recommended for adoption in others. And this not only with regard to financial matters, but in the establishment and working of congregational associations, in the management of day or Sabbath schools, in the improvement of psalmody, in the formation of libraries, or friendly societies, in the conducting of charitable or benevolent institutions, in these and many other external matters of a well-organized congregation, we can see how very useful these deacons' meetings might be made, whether for diffusing information, or for devising new schemes of Christian usefulness. Within the bounds of the London Presbytery the number of deacons cannot be far short of a hundred; and if one half of these are men of any public spirit and Christian zeal they must see that they have a noble opportunity, by their united action, in many ways to advance the interests of our Presbyterian Church. What could be more fitting and honourable than that in order to our ministers and elders giving themselves more to the ministry of the word and prayer, the lay representatives of our congregations should see the more diligently to the outward business of the churches? It is reason that they should do so; and Scripture enjoins it, for no Presbyterian will be so childish as to say that the distribution of alms and care of the poor is the only work of the deacons, because it is the first duty recorded as being put upon them; any more than he would say that preaching is the only duty of a Christian minister, because that was the first work to which the apostles were set apart. Whatever affects the ecclesiastical economics of our churches pertains to the deacons, and it is far more orderly and seemly to have the work done by them than by committees and managers, as is the way

among some other denominations.

Having thrown out these general remarks

for consideration, we shall briefly notice the last general meeting, in order that those Deacons who have not yet attended, may know what is the order of proceedings, and the nature of the business. On this occasion there were nearly thirty present, and all the London Churches were represented, with two exceptions; Woolwich, from which attendance is difficult in the evening on account of the distance, and River-terrace, Islington, where from some temporary or local cause, no Deacons have yet been appointed.

The chair is occupied by a member of each Church in rotation, and on this occasion it was very ably filled by Mr. James Anderson, of Regent-square Church. The devotional exercises were conducted by the Chairman, and by Mr. Kirkaldy, of Stepney, and Mr. Auld, of London-wall. It is arranged or understood beforehand, who is to take part in these exercises, so that no one need fear being brought forward at the call of the chairman without previous assent. In prayer, reading of the word, and praise, about an hour was very profitably and happily spent. Whether it would not be better to divide the devotional exercises, so as to spend thus about half an hour at the beginning and end of each meeting, we suggest for consideration. At the commencement of business, Dr. Stewart brought forward a resolution, of which notice had been given, as to the expediency of continuing these meetings. The comparative smallness of the attendance hitherto had been so discouraging that some had proposed they should be discontinued. The general feeling was, however, strongly opposed to this; and Mr. Ritchie, of Greenwich, with very proper spirit remarked, that if only one Christian brother attended he would continue to come up from Greenwich to meet that brother. We hope to hear no more of this proposal, but that rather from henceforth a new impulse will be given to the meetings, and a great increase be manifest, both in the number of members and the interest of the proceedings. A proposal was then made by Mr. Robertson, of Regent-square, that part of each meeting should be occupied by the reading of a short essay relative to the office and duties of the Presbyterian deaconship, to be followed by conversation on the matters referred to in the paper. This was, after some discussion, agreed to. The proposal is excellent, but we trust that the time to be devoted to this theoretical part of the business may be very limited. There are so many practical points already ripe for being taken up, that it would be a pity to allow too much time to be spent in abstract questions. At the same time the conversation might be made to embrace those practical subjects referred to in the beginning of this article, and the members of each church might communicate any thing in their local arrangements or operations, bearing on the topic of that night's paper. In this way the principles and practice would be most usefully blended; and certainly, with respect to one or two of our churches, the duties of the deacons are so imperfectly performed, that if they would attend these meetings, we think Mr. Robertson's proposal may prove directly and greatly beneficial.

byteries' Proceedings), it appeared to the meeting that the case was one deserving of united co-operation, and the Deacons present resolved to bring the financial part of the business before the members of their several churches.

Mr. Johnstone suggested the propriety the various Deacons' Courts setting apart a particular time each week for simultaneous prayer on behalf of one another. After a closing prayer by Mr. Macaulay, the meeting adjourned.

We earnestly trust that these meetings will be well supported in future. In other Presbyteries also let the Deacons' Courts be effectively organized. If we succeed in establishing, before long, as we hope, a Central Church Fund, the management of it, and of all the financial affairs of our Church, will be devolved upon a Board, representing the aggregate Deacons' Courts. And besides this, there are many local matters of business in the various Presbyteries which it is very wrong that the ministers and elders, as spiritual office-bearers, should be distracted with; and which, if our Deacons' Courts get into working order, will be best managed by their agency. Any suggestion bearing on the subject of this article we shall be glad to receive.

The next meeting of the London Deacons is to be held at 16, Exeter Hall, on Friday, the 26th of this month, at seven p.m.


To the Editor of the English Presbyterian Messenger.

SIR,-Can you inform me why there is not more uniformity in naming our churches? You have from time to time in your columns enlarged upon the necessity of becoming thoroughly English in our churches. Why, then, do we find our new congregations still clinging to the fancy of naming their churches "Scotch Churches," and "Scotch Presbyterian Churches," as if Presbyterianism were something purely Scottish? This is not the way to identify ourselves with the English people. In Manchester we have "St. Andrew's Free Church;"

"The Scotch Church, St. Peter'ssquare;" "The Irish Presbyterian Church:" and on Sabbath last we had the walls extensively placarded, announcing the opening of the "Scotch Presbyterian Church" (which, by the way, I may mention, is a very handsome place of worship, in a conspicuous situ ation in Salford). Who, among the English people, would think that all these were under the same Presbytery, or that they were the same in doctrine and discipline? If you would be kind enough to answer the question have asked in your next number, you would oblige


AN ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN. Manchester, October 18, 1847.

Before we received the above letter we had marked for extract some observations to the same effect from an article that lately appeared in the "Scottish Guardian" newspaper, published at Glasgow. It will be seen that in Scotland the same surprise is felt as by our Manchester correspondent. We must at the same time observe, that in the present stage of the progress of our Church in Ensland, this confused state of matters is avoidable, and in some respects even advan After this the Chairman asked if there was tageous. It is unavoidable, any special matter to be brought forward because the Churches were so named before from any of the churches. Mr. Johnstone, of the re-organization of our English Synod: Regent-square, asked permission for Mr. and in other cases because the parties conMacaulay to state to the meeting the present nected with new churches have used the position of the congregation at Edward-street, liberty which all possess of naming their Soho. Mr. Macaulay having, given a brief places of worship according to their own dis narrative of the history and circumstances of cretion. For the names thus assumed various

in a few instances,

principal no

doubt being, that thereby an earlier and greater accession of members may be secured from among those by country, or descent, or education, already Presbyterian. When a new Presbyterian Church is opened in any town or district, it is natural to suppose that Scotch or Irish Presbyterians will be the first to join it; and in order to attract them the national epithet is affixed to the place of worship. The advantage to be derived for a time from this is twofold. In the first place, the new Church sooner grows into strength by the accession of adherents; and then, as it is more likely that Presbyterianism will commend itself to the English mind by the exhibition of the practical working of our system, than by abstract arguments and expository statements, this practical working must at first be exhibited chiefly by congregations, a large proportion of whose members are Scotch or Irish. But, of course, the sooner this temporary necessity is done away with the better. We dislike and deprecate much the continuance of these local and national distinctions. If we believe our polity to be founded on Scriptural authority, we do it wrong in attaching any geographical surname to it, other than that of the country where our branch of the Church is planted. In London, for instance, we might quite as well have a "Yorkshire Presbyterian Church," for natives of Yorkshire, and a "Cornish Presbyterian Church," for natives of Cornwall, as Scotch Presbyterian Churches for natives of Scotland. It is different where the people of the Church speak Gaelic, or Erse, or Welsh,-call these Scotch, and Irish, and Welsh Presbyterian Churches if you will; but we see no reason why ministers should be so very national, and people so very clannish, as not to be willing to form a Church comprising Christians, whether from Yorkshire, or Cornwall, or Perthshire, provided they speak and understand the same language. To persist in calling our Presbyterian churches" Scotch," or "Irish," is as much as to say to English neighbours, who might otherwise feel disposed to join, that they have no business there. There are no greater drags on the progress of our Church in England than those persons who desire to perpetuate names or customs, expedient perhaps for a time, but not in themselves essential, on grounds either of Scripture, or Presbyterianism, or common sense. Let those ministers and sessions who desire their congregations to be exclusively composed of Scotchmen, and who wish all their usages to be identical with any particular denomination north of the Tweed, by all means let them have their will; but let others seek to unite Christian worshippers (from whatever part of the country they originally sprung) under the common standard of our Presbyterian Church in England. Some seem to reckon it a chief question in forming a Church of Christ where the people had their first birth, and of what parents born; we deem it far more important the question as to the second birth, and whether the Church members are born of the Spirit. In Christ, and in the Christian Church, We wish to know neither barbarian nor Scythian, Scotch nor Irish, but to hold fellowship with all who love the Lord Jesus.

to abandon distinctions by which the progress | over the sphere of his action, and tainted the of our Church in England cannot but be creed of the people of his charge and many materially hindered. As we have already others, still so strong was the hold which he stated, there are some churches (such as had upon the affection of Christians, that they Regent-square, London, and St. Peter's- could not sever him from their hearts. They square, Manchester) which were built and could weep over the aberrations of his innamed before the union of the various Pres- tellect, and the waywardness of his course, byterian churches under a Synod in England but he still lay enshrined in the love and Although these had never any connexion admiration. Even yet, after that his mighty with the Church of Scotland, yet being Scotch soul has long since entered into reat, his churches, when they became associated with name is breathed with reverence, and his fame our Presbyteries and Synod, their names are lingering around the fabric where he pled for retained. But there is no reason for any new God, quickens towards it the step of many churches being thus called. strangers.

We subjoin part of the article from the "Scottish Guardian :"

"What is there in Presbytery more Scottish than English? Nothing whatever. Presbytery is the form of Church government adopted in almost all the Reformed Churches of the continent, and of America, as well as in Scotland. Considering, therefore, as we are well entitled to do, that in the great Protestant Church of Christ over the world, Presbytery (or Consistory as it is in some places called), is the rule, and Episcopacy the exception, we do wonder that our excellent Presbyterian brethren should cling with such pertinacity to the Scottish element, in a land where national feelings are prouder and more exclusive than in any other that we know of; where that which is English is almost always popularly regarded as what is best; and where, by consequence, in regard to churches, the sign of Scotch, or Dutch, or German, is a beacon to warn away your true Englishman-not a light to attract him.

Independently of such things, and of all extrinsic influence, there are still strong attractions, leading multitudes regularly to congregate themselves there. It would be strange were it otherwise. He who now ministers there is no mean servant of his Lord. Upon the spirits of thousands far beyond the sphere of his pastoral labours, the outpourings of his Christian affection and sincerity have fallen as the "dew of Hermon." Thousands who have never had the privilege of listening to the living voice of his earnest and tender entreaties call him blessed, having felt his writings the means whereby God had touched their hearts.

To any one conversant with the peculiarities of Scottish physiognomy, there is no need of reading from the walls the title of the chapel. So soon as the congregation is seen, there is full ocular evidence of its being really Scotch. In many cases, indeed, the features are softened down, as if by the infusion of southern blood, and scattered around there "But there is more in this English Presby- are many whose fatherland obviously was not terian usage than a name. The Irish "north the Tweed;" but the congregation is Presbyterians naturalized themselves from the Scotch, and the mode of conducting the worbeginning in the Green Isle, and so have ship is distinguished by all the severe come to be regarded as no less a Church there simplicity which belongs to the service of than either the Establishment or the Papacy. that people. The psalms sung are of their Let the Presbyterian Church in England version, and they are sung in their accustomed throw off the remaining trammels of vassalage tunes. It is the form of worship followed by and subserviency. Let them declare the the Scotch when struggling against the violent headship, under the Lord Jesus Christ, of a intrusion on them of ceremonies which they General Assembly in England. It is idle to condemned as Popish, and which they have consider that the only Church of England since sternly retained. That the spirit which must be an Episcopal one, and clothed with then animated to the resistance of the spiritual State and civil temporalities. Let our friends despotism of the Stuarts lives in this congrebe assured that if Presbytery be once ex-gation, was shown by their coming forward, hibited and explained-practically above all to the English mind, the very excellence and nobility of the system will soon lead the people of England to recognise and love it, not only as being a Church, and a true one, but as being a Church English all over."



(From the "Universe.") THERE are many powerful associations, both of pain and pleasure, connected with this place of worship. The magnetic influence of the ministrations therein were once extended far beyond the multitudes who were crowded, Sabbath after Sabbath, within its walls. It thoughts of all Protestants of every name. was a place which centred upon itself the Thence there went out to them all, in all the sublimity of sanctified eloquence, the noblest truths nobly and fearlessly exhibited. No Other denominations in England do not pandering to men of rank-no truckling to commit this blunder. We do not find the prevailing tastes--no shading of impalatable Wesleyan body setting apart separate doctrines or duties-but the faithful declaraChurches in London or Manchester for their tion of the whole counsel of God," disYorkshire members, and their Scotch mem-tinguished the ministry of Irving, during the bers, and Irish members. Neither do the Epis-glorious years of his early labours. copalians, nor the Independents; and we When these had passed away, and his giant


pastor and people, from under the wings of the Scottish Establishment, and uniting themselves with those who resisted what they regarded as the encroachments of the civil ruler upon their spiritual rights and liberty, thus breaking, under the power of conscience, ties strong in themselves, and stronger by association, with the Church of their fathers.

As Mr. Hamilton appeared in the pulpit on the morning of Sabbath last, (September 19,) he seemed to shed around him claims on the

sympathy of his people. He appeared as if under the influence of physical weakness, his countenance as if the index of an over-taxed and over-wrought spirit, and so shaded as if it were the resting-place of anxiety, if not of sadness. He arrested close attention while he created the feeling, "It is a labour beyond his strength to address this people." There is no mistaking of his being in earnest. His sincerity is transparent in his whole bearing, and to this obviously much of his ministerial influence and the effect of his preaching must be attributed. Prejudice must be disarmed by it; inattention could not lounge in its presence, while it produces reliance on his testimony, and affection towards himself.

Both his pronunciation and gesture are evidence that he never was a laborious stu

therefore trust that the good sense of our intellect became weakened, and delusion in-dent of elocution. He seems engrossed by Presbyterian friends will speedily lead them fused its poison into his spirit, spread itself his subject itself, and the depth of his feeling

His morning prayer was peculiarly comprehensive, including the various classes, conditions, engagements, and wants of his people. It left the impression that "he greatly longed over them all." Considered in itself, it was a beautiful specimen of the outpouring of ministerial affection at the throne of God. He selected his text from the 16th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, 31st verse:"Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved."

The object of the discourse was to show the simplicity of the mode by which salvation may be obtained, and consequently its suitableness to man. Though the peculiar manner of his illustration gave the discourse much of its beauty, and also of its influence, yet it prevents the possibility of giving more than a "bird's-eye view" of how he exhibited and enforced his subject.


He closed the service by praying in a form so lowly, yet so confiding and loving, showing so much of his intimacy with his closet, and so much of the grace of God in his heart, that the mind must have been a cold one which was not subdued while he supplicated before the throne.

Thus ended a service in which was fully and strikingly shown a pastor's heart yearning over the salvation of his people. May he have many of them for his crown of joy and rejoicing in the day of the Lord! To himself the words properly apply, "Master, spare thyself." His ministry is wanted in the Church. Let him husband his energies, so that he may long advance the great cause to which he is consecrated. This seems his duty to himself, to the Church, and to its Lord.

lends a depth to his tones, and a corresponding | a very erroneous view of the doctrinal state-behaviour of Ham towards his father, on the one to the impression made, which no elegance ments of the preacher. While Mr. Hamilton, sad occasion of his backsliding; who, like a of gesture or correctness of accent could pro- in his happiest style, illustrated the text, he true child of the wicked one, seemed to duce. Though reading closely from his notes, at the same time showed how salvation is rejoice in the iniquity, and to glory in his and with little action, there is no question as altogether "by grace, through faith, and that father's shame. And we pass but a few to effect. His style is one in which mixed not of ourselves, it is the gift of God." generations to get to the time of Abraham, metaphor is sufficiently prominent, and in From the written Word of God man obtains when this great truth was in some respects which there is what might be called elaborated the knowledge of the way of salvation; but more fully brought out than it had ever been simplicity; but it has charms, to the power of man has not in himself the power of believing before. The new series of Divine manifestawhich all must be susceptible, and by means in a saving manner, and of appropriating the tions, commencing in the person and family of which the truth, taking new and living blessings of the Gospel of Christ. This faith of Abraham, gave undeniable proof that the forms, has much vividness. is wrought in the soul by God the Holy people of God are not only a distinct seed, Spirit, and it is His work to persuade and but elect according to his own free and enable us to receive and rest on Christ for sovereign grace. This had been implied, salvation, as revealed in the written Word, rather than plainly taught, in the facts of and offered in the preached Gospel.-ED. antediluvian history; and though a pious and Messenger."] reflecting mind might easily have gathered that it was God who made the one to differ from the other, yet, so far as we know, there was nothing in that period of the world's history, which broadly displayed the grace of election. But it obtained a very striking display in the line of providences which began with the call of Abraham. Of him it might be said in a peculiar sense, "that the Lord did choose him" (Nehem. ix. 7); singled out, as he was, from his father's house, though certainly not the eldest, apparently, indeed, the youngest of the family, and employed like the rest in "serving other gods." (Josh. xxiv. 2.) The change to the better in his condition, therefore, which passed over when he was honoured with the peculiar favour and blessing of heaven, had its origin solely in the distinguishing grace of God. He stood forth a living monument and witness of the truth, that the "Lord has mercy on whom he will have mercy." The testimony was again renewed in the case of Isaac, who was preferred before Ishmael, as being in a sense quite peculiar the gift of God, in his very birth the offspring of singular and sovereign grace. And when it pleased God still further to limit the seed, with which the word of promise was to be connected, by selecting only one of Isaac's sons, a still more remarkable confirmation was given to the same truth; for not only was the younger chosen before the elder, but the election was made, and intimated, before the children were born, and, consequently, "before they had done either good or evil," to give occasion to the preference. Nay, even within this narrow circle it appeared, in the course of time, that there was a circle narrower still, that they were "not all Israel, who were of Israel." Through every generation we discern the manifest traces of a believing and spiritual, as opposed to an unbelieving and carnal portion. And of the three grand distinctions-which connected one tribe with the government, one family with the throne, and one individual with the person of Messiah, we find all be stowed in a way of sovereign grace; the first being given to Judah, though neither the best nor the eldest in his father's house; the second to David, when only a shepherdboy tending his father's flocks; and the last to the Virgin Mary, "an handmaiden of low estate." (Ps. lxxviii. 68, 70; 1 Sam. xvi. 7-10; Luke i. 48.)

He introduced his discourse by, or rather his whole discourse turned upon, the illustration of a supposed case, by which he sought to educe his general idea, and give it individual application. The case he supposed was that of an individual cast out upon a desert island. This individual, possessing the knowledge that there was a God, was ignorant of his character, and of his will regarding man; and, therefore, he had no confidence in him, nor any consciousness of his love. His mind directed towards God found nothing to satisfy itself in the works of nature above or around him. The heavens were, indeed, often calm and beauteous, but they were also often curtained with tempest clouds. The sea spread around him often in glassy smoothness, but at other times it was lashed into fury by the storm. The brook which flowed past had sometimes melody, but at other times it brawled in wrath. Spring and summer came upon the earth, but their beauty passed away, and desolating winter came. Combining all these things as from God, and as manifestations of him, this man was one of changeful feeling—now the subject of hope, and then of fear; and, amidst these alternations, there was no voice which told him of God's mercy.

This was his state when an event occurred which produced in him a mental revolution. There was one day cast upon the beach a seaman's chest-the chest of some lost one. It was opened by him; there was a book in it-a Testament—a mother's gift of love to her sea-boy. It was so drenched that to open it then would have been to destroy it; so he laid it before his evening fire, and in the morning turned over its leaves, which were all "crisped."

He read, and he found Christ there-he found Christ there a Saviour to himself. He found an incarnate God for him incarnate. He saw how grace might be obtained, and glory won. He found the character of God there, and the fulness of his gift and mercy; and, finding these, he was happy. He found what met his state mentally and morally.

[We need not insert the outline of the rest of the sermon as reported, which is confessedly incomplete, and in some parts gives


THE doctrine of election by grace, or the im-
portant fact, that the redeemed were to be,
not mankind at large, but only an elect seed,
chosen by God himself, and appointed to
salvation, is one of the most repulsive in all
ages to the natural man. It was most natural
that men should at first have judged other-
wise, and that knowing God was minded to
turn again the captivity of sin, they should
have expected him to leave none a prey to
its dominion. This presumption affectingly
discovers itself in the joyous announcement
which escaped from Eve at the birth of her
first-born child, "I have gotten a man from
the Lord;" never, apparently, doubting that
he whom she thus hailed as the gift should
also be a child of God,-one of that promised
seed which was to bruise the head of the
serpent. The promise seemed to make no dis-
tinction between one portion of her seed and
another. It merely gave intimation of a general
fact, and we cannot wonder that the feelings
of maternal affection should have led her to
take it in a sense so wide as to comprehend
all her offspring. Never was mother destined
to receive a sorer disappointment; and when
in progress of time she saw her second son,
who had been named Abel (emptiness), in
token probably of his inferior natural gifts or
appearance, visited with peculiar marks of
Divine favour and blessing, while her eldest
son, rising in proud rebellion against heaven,
at once slew his righteous brother, and be-
came the head of a malignant race of apos-
tates, she then came to learn in sorrow of
heart that it was not all her offspring, nor
even, perhaps, that portion of it which to
man's eye might seem most likely to receive
the honour, but an election according to grace,
in whom the promise of redemption was to
be made good."

ceed far till the same fact discovered itself.
The history of the new world did not pro-
That even in Noah's family there was an
election, shone out but too prominently in the

We have thus a long chain of providences, reaching almost from the commencement of the world to the birth of Him in whose work and kingdom all previous exhibitions of Divine truth were to receive their final form and development, all manifesting the real subjects of Divine favour and blessing to be a chosen seed, and chosen not on the ground to the distinction, but in the exercise of free of any qualities in themselves entitling them and sovereign grace on the part of God.Fairbairn's Typology of Scripture."




OH! that man would but learn a lesson of
his short-sightedness, and nations a lesson of
their instability, by that reverse which hath
befallen us.
We have seen the stateliest for-
tunes overthrown, the most ancient and
honoured names dishonoured, the surest es-
tablishments laid prostrate, credit between
man and man suspended, the pecuniary bul-
warks of the nation subverted, and the nation
itself reeling and staggering like a drunken
man. Behold in one month, in one week, all
is dismay, confusion, and blank astonishment.
The man that thought himself rich when he
arose in the morning, goes to bed at night in
poverty; and he who hath wealth in abun-
dance, is fain to shut his shop through
inability to pay. The people run about the
streets like frantic men, and crowd around
the doors of the most opulent and worthy
citizens, as if they were about to take flight
and carry off all that had been intrusted to
their care.
And no man felt safe to trust his
most trust-worthy friend; and activity ceased
in this great workshop and thoroughfare of
mammon. It was as if an earthquake had
stricken our city, such was the consternation;
and without a figure, it hath had the fatal
effects of an earthquake, for it hath a little
shaken the foundations of every man's credit,
while of many it hath swallowed up the all.
It hath consumed the hopes of many sons
and daughters, and though it hath not de-
stroyed the lives of many, it hath taken away
that for which alone many cared to live,
leaving their lives a burden and a bitterness
to them, and making the gay world as the
shadow of death unto their souls.


is supposed to lie-our enlightened people I cannot better introduce the subject to you
and our stable credit; that we may timeously than by quoting the folowing magnificent passage
separate ourselves from those false trusts, is, more than in any other productions of unin-
from Lord Bacon, in whose wonderful writings it
knowledge and wealth; and babble no longer spired intellect, that we earn at once the most
atheistical babblings about the enlightened grand and the most soberviews of man's intel-
age, and the glorious prospects of wealth. I lectual relations to the universe. The extract is
tell you, at the best, that knowledge of itself taken from the unfinished piec, entitled, "Vale-
puffeth up, and that charity alone buildeth rius Terminus of the Interpretation of Nature."
He is vindicating the religious lawfulness of scien-
up; and that riches have ever been the sink
tific knowledge against the views of those who
of nations. But what have ye to do with such "do offer too great a restraint to atural and
glory, ye who are the people of God's covenant? lawful knowledge, being unjustly jealous that
Your kingdom is not of this world. Your every reach and depth of knowledge wherewith
their conceits have not been acquainted, should
treasures are not on the earth, where moth
be too high an elevation of man's wit, and a
and rust corrupt. Are you not witnesses searching and revelling too far into God's secrets;
against Mammon; are you not witnesses against an opinion that ariseth either of envy, which is
Lucifer, the enlightened son of the morning, proud weakness, and to be censured and not con-
and against vain-glory of every kind? Go futed, or else of a deceitful simplicity. For if
not then to yoke into the train of Mammon's doth make men more devoutly to depend upon
they mean that the ignorance of a second cause
worshippers, and drag on his heavy car.
the providence of God, as supposing the effects to
humbled that you should ever have looked come immediately from his hand, I demand of
that way, or set your heart upon that which them as Job demanded of his friends, Will you
profiteth not. Go to; repent, and seek your But if any man, without any sinister humour,
lie for God? as man will for man to gratify him."
first love. Be either cold or hot. Be either doth indeed make doubt that this digging further
for God or against Him. Either expect from and further into the mine of natural knowledge is
Providence or expect from Mammon; ye cannot a thing without example, and not recommended
serve them both. Either labour for industry in the Scriptures, or fruitless, let him remember
and righteousness' sake, and be thankful for and be instructed; for, behold, it was not that
pure light of natural knowledge whereby man in
daily bread, or labour for thousands by the
Paradise was able to give unto every living crea-
year, and curse the God of fortune if you ture a name according to his propriety, which
realize them not. Be frugal at home, be gave occasion to the fall; but it was an aspiring
modest abroad; run not in breathless haste desire to attain to that part of moral knowledge
after winged treasure; but walk abroad in which defineth of good and evil, whereby to dis-
pute God's commandments, and not to depend
majesty, conversing with God in the works of upon the revelation of his will, which was the
His which you behold and handle. And com- original temptation. And the first holy records
mand your wives to refrain from vanity and which within those brief memorials of things
idle excess, and suffer them not in ornaments which passed before the flood, entered few things
which become not the handmaidens of God.
as worthy to be registered, but only lineages and
propagations, yet, nevertheless, bonour the re-
And rear your children as men, not as world-membrance of the inventor both of music and
worms; to be saints, not to be drudges; to be works in metal. Moses, again, is said to have
heirs of the inheritance of Christ's kingdom, been seen in all the Egyptian learning, which
which now struggleth through thin clouds nation was early and leading in matter of know-
into its endless day, not to be heirs of a world ledge. And Solomon, the King, as out of a branch
of his wisdom, extraordinarily petitioned and
which is doomed to destruction, and even now granted from God, is said to have written &
is reeling on the brink of the abyss.
natural history of all that is green, from the cedar
to the moss, which is but a rudiment between
putrefaction and an herb, and also of all that liveth
and moveth. And if the book of Job be turned
over, it will be found to have much aspersion of
natural philosophy. Nay, the same Solomon, the
King, affirmeth directly, that the glory of God is
to conceal a thing, but the glory of the King is to
of children, the Divine Majesty took delight to
hide his works, to the end to have them found
out; for in naming the King he intendeth man,
taking such a condition of man as hath most ex-
cellency and greatest commandment of wits and
means, alluding also to his own person, being truly
self speaketh in another place, when he saith,
one of those clearest burning lamps whereof him-
The spirit of man is as the lamp of God, where-
with he searcheth all inwardness; which nature of
the soul the same Solomon holding precious and
inestimable, and therein conspiring with the affec
tion of Socrates, who scorned the pretended
learned men of his time for raising great benefit
of their learning, whereas Anaxagoras, contrari-
wise, and divers others being born to ample patri-
monies, decayed them in contemplation, delivereth
sell it not, and so of wisdom and knowledge.
it in precept yet remaining,- Buy the truth and
And lest any man," Bacon continues, "should




verse, and the spirit in which it behoves him to exer-
cise that function.

That yawning chasm which hath opened under our feet, in the solid ground of national prosperity, whereon we fondly dreamed that our mountain was standing sure, this earthquake shock which commercial credit hath sustained in the most high and palmy state of British grandeur, when all men were offering incense to the idol, and saying, it is most beautiful and blessed for ever,-I do regard as God's sign to this land, which he loveth; The Function of Man as the Interpreter of the Uni- find it out; as if, according to the innocent play intending to forewarn us how silly and superficial are our views, how short-sighted our calculations, how inadequate the best and wisest governors to steer the vessel of the State for a single day; and that though the ship may be most surely sound in all her timbers, the pilots wakeful, and all hands aboard most stout and steady, the Lord hath in his store-house, thwarting winds and hideous storms ready at his call, against which neither the excellency of our constitution, nor the wisdom of our governors, nor the patient perseverance of our people can make head. Now, forasmuch as I do know, from conversations with the wisest men, that this which we

have passed through is an exceeding great and grievous trial to all men, I do entreat

THE subject on which I propose to address you
on this occasion is one of great reach and compass,
and of fundamental importance. It is "The
function of man as the interpreter, not merely of
external nature, but of the universe as a whole,

and the spirit in which it behoves him to exercise
that function." The universe has two grand
departments-the spiritual world, and the mate-
rial world; and man is the intelligent interpreter
of both. Theology is the spiritual world rightly in-
terpreted, in so far as it now lies open to man's in-
terpretation, just as science embodies the results
of the right interpretation of the material world.
The subject, then, is as appropriate to your pursuits
as students of theology, as it is great and im-
portant is as much a question of theology as of
The question which we propose to

them to regard it as the omen which God in philosophy, and it is one which peculiarly belongs retain a scruple, as if the thirst of knowledge were

mercy hath sent to us, in order to show us how insecure is every pillar of human confidence, and the trial through which I doubt not he will carry us in safety, as he hath brought the other nations through their days of trial, but by which he expecteth her own people to take warning, and flee from the false refuge of national pride and fond security into which we were all lulled asleep, to put our trust alone in the kingdom of Christ, whereof the Gospel is the present

earnest unto our souls.

Verily I say unto you, ye men of England, we have had our warning to look to the feebleness of those things where our strength

to the department of exegetic theology; for by
exegetic is meant interpretative theology;-it is
that branch of the science which lays down those
principles of interpretation by which systematic
theology must obtain, both from nature and from
revelation, all its legitimate materials.

It is usual for philosophers to treat of man as
the interpreter of the material world; and it is
also usual for divines to treat of man as the inter-
preter of the spiritual world, through the medium
of the Scriptures; but it is not so usual to con-
template man's function as the interpreter of the
universe as a whole, and with reference to the
question whether the universe contains a spiritual
department at all. And, to my own mind, the
chief interest of the subject which I propose to
discuss lies in this difference, a difference which
its fundamental importance.
more and more impresses me with a conviction of

rather an humour of the mind than an emptiness or want in nature and an instinct from God, the same author defineth of it fully, saying, God hath made everything in beauty according to season;

also He hath set the world in man's heart. Yet can he not find out the work which God worketh from the beginning to the end.' Declaring, not obscurely, that God hath framed the mind of man as a glass, capable of the image of the universal world, joying to receive the signature thereof as the eye is of light; yet, not only satisfied in beholding the variety of things and vicissitude of times, but raised also to find out and discern those ordinances and decrees which throughout all these changes are infallibly observed. And although the highest generality of motion, or summary law of nature, God should still reserve within his own curtain, yet many and noble are

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