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the inferior and secondary operations which are within man's sounding." "There are, besides, two reasons, of exceeding great weight and force, why religion should dearly protect all increase of natural knowledge: me one, because it leadeth to the greater exaltion of the glory of God; for, as the Psalms and other Scriptures do often invite us to consider and to magnify the great and wonderful works of God, so if we should rest only in the contemplation of those shows which first offer themseives to our senses, we should do a like injury to che Majesty of God, as if we should judge of the store of some excellent jeweller by that only which is set out to the street in his shop. The other reason is, because it is a singular help, and a preservative against unbelief and error; for, saith our Saviour, You err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God,'-laying before us two books, or volumes, to study, if we will be secured from error; first the Scriptures, revealing the will of God, and then the creatures expressing his power, for that latter book will certify us that nothing which the first teacheth shall be thought impossible. And most sure it is, and a true conclusion of experience, that a little natural philosophy inclineth the mind to Atheism, but a further proceeding bringeth the mind back to religion. To conclude, then, let no man presume to check the liberality of God's gifts, who, as was said, hath set the world in man's heart. So as whatsoever is not God, but parcel of the world, he hath fitted it to the comprehension of man's mind, if man will open and dilate the powers of his understanding as he may."

The ideas of the passage which I wish you mainly to reflect upon at present are these, so admirably expressed both by Scripture and its illustrious commentator:

reader and interpreter of the book; and God's
glory and his own are the end of his reading and

Advancing now a step farther, I would observe,
that man cannot hope to attain this twofold end
in the interpretation of the book of the universe,
unless he makes use of his instrument of interpre-
tation in the right spirit, upon right principles,
and in the right way. Here there is a wrong mode
of procedure lying open to man, as well as a right
one, and everything depends upon his choosing
and following the right path. If he uses his in-
strument of interpretation amiss, he can neither
achieve for himself the glory of possessing the true
knowledge of the world, nor procure for God the
revenue of glory which the world, when truly
known, yields up to Him as its Creator and
Governor. And even when he uses and applies
his interpretative mind aright in the main, but yet
not wholly aright, the fruits, both of his own
and the Divine glory which accrue from his
researches, must necessarily remain incomplete.
It is only when he learns to apply his mind to the
interpretation of the universe with perfect aptitude
and wisdom, that man can attain to the glory of
perfect knowledge. And the Creator is then only
perfectly glorified when the world which he has
created is perfectly known, and when all the
depth of the riches of wisdom and knowledge and
power which he has hidden in the mighty bosom
of the universe has been searched out and dis-

All this is obvious enough. A proposition so selfevident as this, that in the wielding of an instruThis is a long quotation, but the magnificence ment, every thing must depend upon its being of its thoughts and language will amply atone to wielded in the way in which it was intended to be you for its length. It may justly be regarded, in-applied, such a proposition will not be disputed deed, as one of the grandest passages in the whole by any one. Has man, then, we now ask-has compass of English literature; and one of the civilized and Christianized man ever yet learnedfinest combinations ever executed of the sublime I do not say universally, or generally, but even to ideas of the human mind when speaking by inspi- any considerable extent-the right way of apration of God, with the loftiest thoughts of the plying his understanding to the searching and same mind when not inspired indeed by the Divine interpretation of the world in its two grand deSpirit, but when moved and exalted by the inspi- partments? It is enough to answer this question, ration of genius, and when lifting up itself on the to ask another, "Is there no error still to be found strong wings which it has borrowed from the among civilized and intelligent men? no error in Word of God. It is a glorious and a rare union to science, no error in religion? For it is plain, that see the mighty intellect of a Bacon_commenting wherever there is error of either kind, it can only upon the inspired utterances of a Solomon,-to arise from a wrong use of the mind in the business hear the wisdom of the wisest man of all antiquity of interpretation, from whatever causes, intellectual expounded and opened up by the father of modern or moral, or both conjoined, that misuse of the philosophy. mind may result. If men were all to interpret aright, they would all alike have both a sound theology and a sound science. If they made no mistake as to the proper spirit and principles and procedure of human research, there could be no "God hath set the world in man's heart. God mistake, at least no permanent mistake, either in hath framed the mind of man as a glass capable their scientific or their religious conclusions. If of the image of the universal world. God hath you admit it then, as a melancholy fact in man's laid before us two books or volumes to study, condition, even at this advanced period of his histhe Scriptures revealing the will of God, and the tory and experience, that error of all kind still creatures expressing his power. Whatsoever is abounds, you must also admit that man still not God, but parcel of the world, God hath fitted needs, to a corresponding extent, to learn what is it to the comprehension of man's mind, if man the only right way of using and applying his interwill open and dilate the power of his understand-pretative mind, what are the only sound principles ing as he may. The spirit of man is as the lamp both of theologizing and philosophizing. The of God, wherewith he searcheth all inwardness. fact is now universally admitted, however strange And this searching of man into all inwardness and incredible it may appear, that it is little more concerns both the glory of God and the glory of than two hundred years since one man first exman, for the glory of God is to conceal a thing, cogitated for himself, and then published to his He being glorified in the discovery of that which fellow-men the only right principles and mode of He has designedly concealed; and it is the glory interpreting the book of nature; and so convinced even of a King,-it is the glory of man, even in his was Bacon of the absolute newness of many of his highest and proudest earthly condition, a glory views to mankind, and that he had not derived far surpassing that of all royal pomp and power, them from any of the schools either ancient or to find out and bring to light what God has thus modern of human learning; so much did he look wisely hidden." These are the main ideas of the upon them as a new gift of Divine Providence to passage, and they set before you, with great vivid- mankind, vouchsafed to them through the single ness, the very truths to which I wish your thoughts channel of his reflective spirit, that we find him to be now directed, viz. :in various parts of his philosophical works, breaking suddenly off from his profound and eloquent converse with men, to lift up his devout thanksgivings to God for the intellectual light which he had received, and to add his devout supplications that God would bless to mankind his labours in diffusing that light around him. Thou, O Father!" he sublimely and affectingly prays, after announcing to the world the distribution or plan of the great work which he had And, that the great end of man's being put in conceived and partly executed, the "Instauratio this intellectual relation to the universe, and Magna," "Thou, O Father! who gavest the visible being furnished both with so grand a subject and light as the first-born of thy creatures, and didst so exquisite an instrument of interpretation, is pour into man the intellectual light as the top and the glory of God, who created alike the human consummation of thy workmanship, be pleased to interpreter and the universe which he interprets; protect and govern this work which, coming from this glory of God, which is the supreme end, com- thy goodness, returneth to thy glory. We humbly prehending and including within itself, as a sub-beg that thou, by our hands, and also by the ordinate, but yet important end, man's own hands of others, on whom thou shalt bestow the highest glory and greatest good. The whole uni- same spirit, wilt please to convey a largess of new verse is man's book; his understanding is the alms to thy family of mankind. These things we

That it is the noble function of the intelligent creature man to interpret the universal world, in so far as he has access upon earth to know it through the volumes of nature and revelation.

That the instrument of research and interpre

tation with which man has been furnished is his mind, his understanding "opening and dilating itself," his spirit searching all inwardness as the lamp of God.


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commend to thy everlasting love, by our Jesus
thy Christ, God with us.
But if this fact, in the history of human know-
ledge is a strange one, there is another still stranger
and no less unquestionable. The only right way
of interpreting the spiritual world, was taught to
mankind by our Lord himself, sixteen hundred
years before Bacon taught them the right method
of physical research. Indeed, we may venture to
say, that the germ of the inductive philosophy
itself, was laid up and enveloped by our Lord in
his memorable declaration, Verily I say unto
you, except ye be converted, and become as little
children, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of
heaven," although it took sixteen hundred years
before human sagacity penetrated the envelope and
discovered the germ. For Bacon in several places
adverts to, and recognises the parallelism or
identity of principle, between the only right modes
of entering into the knowledge of the spiritual
and the natural kingdoms. But though these
sixteen hundred years and two hundred and
fifty more are past and gone since man was
thus divinely taught the right spirit and prin-
ciples of religious investigation, how little com-
paratively have the human family yet profited
by this teaching! How little progress has
civilized man yet made in the school of Christ!
How fearfully does he still wander among the
endless mazes of spiritual error; what an ocean
of religious delusion and doubt still covers the
world, covers even Christendom itself! The lapse
of well-nigh two thousand years has not sufficed to
give any wide diffusion to the light which emanated
from Christ, in regard to the very first principles
of spiritual science. Nay! the marvel does not
stop even here. To complete the strangeness and
the sadness of this history, we have to add, that
even of the multitude of minds that have bowed
to Bacon, there are not very many who have
bowed to the Son of God. There are multitudes
of highly intelligent spirits that have meekly
learned from the philosopher how to study na-
ture, but who still stoutly and very inconsistently
refuse to learn from the Saviour how to study the
Father who sent him to earth as our religious
teacher, and the spiritual world from whence he
came. The teacher sent from God has as much
reason to remonstrate with men now, in the age of
Bacon's palmiest power, as he had in the un-
scientific days of Nicodemus. "We speak that
we do know, and we testify that we have seen,
but ye receive not our witness. No man hath
ascended up to heaven but he that came down
from heaven, even the Son of man which is in

With such facts as these upon the face of history, who can doubt, that quick and ardent as man is in the work of interpreting the universe, he is amazingly slow and unapt in apprehending the right way to prosecute the work; and that the very first principles of knowledge, instead of being the first to be learned by him, are in truth the very last. Ever active in intellectual labours as he is, and ever aiming to build higher and higher the pile of universal science, the very latest thing he learns is the true method of this intellectual architecture; his very last acquisition of knowledge, is the knowledge of the true foundation of the whole edifice. This strange untowardness of the human understanding is so melancholy a feature of man's present condition-and in relation to spiritual knowledge and conviction is fraught with so fatal and irremedi able effects upon the souls of men, that I cannot pass from contemplating it, without still farther endeavouring to impress it vividly upon your minds. Realize then, the historical facts of the case. The Son of God descended from heaven to earth with a doctrine intended to remedy this blindness, and to teach mankind the first principles of spiritual investigation as well as the most advanced doctrines of spiritual science, but the stubborn perversity of the human mind withstood his teaching then, sealed though it was with miracles: and in innumerable instances of religious or theological thinkers, it withstands his teaching still. His apostles followed on the same blessed mission, full of inspiration from above, and confirming their preaching with mighty signs and wonders; but their preaching was foolishness to the great mass of speculative minds in that day, and to the great majority of such minds it is foolishness still. The Pagan intellect and philosophy of Greece and Rome refused almost unanimously, at first, to concede to them the very first axiom of spiritual knowledge, that man must be content to learn the facts of the spiritual world from competent instructors, and not presume to divine or excogitate them for him self. And even of the multitudes of Pagans who

divinations of things?" What was this but the
profoundest of all theologians acknowledging with
Newton, the greatest of all philosophers, that he
felt himself to be but a little child, standing upon
the shore of the boundless ocean of truth, and
content to learn from another where he could not
excogitate or discover for himself.

Last of all in this glorious train of modern sages
came He who was so recently among us, but is
now gone up to be with God, a man of kindred
genius and spirit, and worthy, most worthy, to be
called the successor of these illustrious names,
inasmuch as he was the great representative of
their ideas, the great expounder of their philosophy
and theology to the generation which his long and
brilliant career adorned. Thomas Chalmers was a
most thorough Baconian in the whole tone and
temper of his philosophy, and in theology Butler
was his very watch-word. Nothing could equal
the zest and enthusiasm with which he sympa-
thized with the genius and reasonings of Butler.
Nothing, as every disciple that ever sat at his feet
must remember-nothing could equal the relish,
the positive gusto with which he repeated and
applauded, and repeated again, the Bishop's dry
and sagacious phrase, "for aught we know." It
was evident that he saw in it a world of important
meaning, and that its meaning was as thoroughly
congenial to him as it was profound. And even
"in his ashes live their wonted fires ;" even from
his honoured grave, he will still speak to the world
the same lessons of sanctified wisdom which he
taught so long, by his living eloquence; for almost
his very last contribution of posthumous author-
ship to the Church and to the world, will be his
"Lectures on the Analogy of Butler."

subsequently embraced Christianity during the
first three centuries, even in the Ante-Nicene
Church itself, it may be doubted whether there
were very many who thoroughly grasped the only
principle that could preserve the system of Chris-
tian doctrine from the taint of earthly mixtures,
or that could repel the sinister advances of Gentile
philosophy under the plausible disguise of the
Christian profession. At all events we know from
history that the purity of apostolic doctrine soon
began to be corrupted by the mixture of Pagan
ingredients; it was very soon practically forgotten
that no man had ascended into heaven to know the
realities of the spiritual world save He that had
come down from heaven and returned to heaven
again; and this oblivion of the fundamental prin-
ciple of religious truth soon opened the door of
the Church to a whole host of corruptions. Men
were permitted first to teach the Church what the
Son of God had not taught, thus corrupting the truth
by spurious additions; and next, to teach what
was contrary to the word of Christ; thus altogether
subverting the edifice of spiritual truth. Deeper
and deeper the darkness thickened-farther and
farther the Church which should have been
the pillar and ground of the truth lapsed from the
purity of primitive Christianity,-till at last she
presumptuously put herself in the room of her Di-
vine Head, and her priests and doctors utterly
made void the Word of God by their inventions and
traditions. The truth of Christ was thus well-nigh
lost through the long abandonment of its cardinal
principle that Christ alone is competent to teach it,
and that man's proper place is to sit at his feet.
During the long dark night of Papal superstition
and usurpation, it might naturally have seemed
that the Sun of Righteousness had sunk beneath All this has come and gone these last two hundred
the horizon never to rise again. But at last the years, and doubtless multitudes of minds have pro-
time of his second rising came. The Reformation fited by the labours of these great teachers, and
dawned and brightened to the perfect day. Again have rejoiced in the illumination of these burning
first principles were restored, and with them the and shining lights. But look at the condition of
whole truth of Christ brought back to the be- the Church and the world as a whole. Look at the
nighted Church and to a world which could not general aspect of intellectual and religious society
but be grown portentously dark-when the very light in our own day. Do we even yet see any pro-
that was in it-the Church-had long been darkness, portionable fruit of the teaching which these great
But did the Church unanimously welcome the auspi-sages dispensed among men in their lifetime, and
cious light which had again arisen upon her? Did which they left as a precious legacy at their
she arise and shine when the glory of the Lord death? On the contrary, do we not behold the
thus again beamed forth upon her? The Church of great bulk of civilized intelligence, apparently
Europe divided itself in twain at that great emer- as far from the fundamental principles of
gency. A part were enlightened, but the rest re- spiritual science as ever? Assuming that
mained blinded. The Church Protestant renounced men could not go very far astray in their
the blindness of ages, but the Church Papal de- spiritual inquiries, if they had a firm hold
clared, "We are not blind, we see already;" we of right principles as to the only legitimate mode
need no new light, we have the old religion, the of conducting them-and this, I think, may be
religion of Luther is of yesterday. They still re- fairly assumed,-what can we infer from the
jeeted the teaching of Christ. They still asserted endless varieties of error and delusion in which
that the first principle of spiritual knowledge is to Christendom is still lost, but that these primary
hear the Church-they still opposed the funda- principles are really not yet generally understood?
mental law of spiritual science, which is, that man, It was a precisely parallel inference which Bacon
that the Church, that the whole world, should be drew in reference to scientific research, when he
silent, and that Christ the Teacher sent from the saw the endless and ever-shifting forms of false
spiritual world, alone should teach.
and fantastic science which prevailed in his time,
and had prevailed for centuries. He was con-
vinced by the manifold errors of philosophers,
that they had yet to learn thoroughly the only
true way of philosophizing, and in like manner,
what can we infer from the vast amount and
diversity of theological error that still exists and
becomes every day more threatening in the world,
but that the vast majority of religious thinkers
and writers are still in a great measure ignorant
of, or quite unconvinced respecting the only true
way of theologizing?

And what events have come and gone in Christendom since then?

The world and the Church have had many great teachers of intellectual wisdom since the days of the Reformers. Bacon and Boyle, Newton and Butler, Locke and Chalmers, have all since then shone as lights in the intellectual firmament; all of them men of kindred genius, and all of them alike remarkable for their profound acquaintance with the necessary limits, and the only sound principles of human research into the spiritual as well as the physical domain of things. Bacon told mankind distinctly, that as physical induction was the only right road to science, so Bible induction was the only right road to theology. Newton first dazzled the world by the brilliancy of his discoveries in the region of nature; and then, when all eyes were turned upon him with admiration, and when every ear was strained in eager attention to his voice, he became the world's religious teacher too, by substantially reiterating Bacon's admonition, and by illustrating its truth and fruitfulness, by the exhibition of the splendid example of a theology sound in the main held in unison with a sound and triumphant philosophy. Butler followed next, and rather practically applying than formally expounding the same grand principle, he gave the world a vindication of Bibledoctrine, which by reason of the infallibility of that principle Infidelity has never refuted and never can. His talisman was the spirit of his oft-recurring phrase, "For aught we know" it may be so and so in the spiritual world, and we are in no condition legitimately to resist the Scriptures when they assure us that so it is in reality. And what was this but a resuscitation of Bacon's wholesome jealousy of what he called the mind's "anticipations and

It is true that there are several other causes to which theological error is to be traced, and that some of these lie far deeper down in human nature than any merely intellectual disqualification for right and legitimate spiritual research. In spiritual inquiries the warping and blinding influence of the moral elements of our depraved and disordered nature has much greater effect upon the operations and conclusions of the understanding, than it has in researches of a purely physical kind; there is experienced by men a much more quick and energetic action and reaction between the understanding and the heart, in connexion with the question, what they are to believe about the spiritual world and their relations to it, than in connexion with the question, what they are to hold respecting the material world. And this very vital difference between the two cases ought never to be forgotten by us. Along with this difference between them, however, there is also an important analogy and resemblance. In regard to both classes of questions alike, there is intellectual action, the understanding has equally to do with both. The understanding is in fact the final judge and arbiter of both. There is equal room, then, in both for an erroneous procedure of the under

standing equal room in both for a mistaken and misdirected application of the interpretative instrument, and equal room, therefore, in both for causes of error in the results of the mental process, which are purely intellectual. And, we repeat, that one at least of these purely intellectual causes of error in the theological speculations of men's minds, is to be found in their not being thoroughly Baconian, or not Baconian at all in their views of the true principles and method of spiritual research. I do not say, you will observe, that this is the only intellectual source of error, any more than it could be said that ignorance or neglect of the Baconian induction is the only intellectual source of error in physical investigations. The truth is, that the human mind is liable to error, not only at the outset of its inquiries into subjects either of the spiritual or material world, and in reference to the legitimate mode and process of investigation; but it is equally exposed to error at every subsequent stage of its intellectual procedure. It may, and does, err, and that continually, not only in regard to the fundamental and primary question-What is the only legitimate quarter to which it is to look for evidence as the ground of its knowledge and belief? but no less in regard to numberless subsequent questions as to the real value and force and adequacy of the evidence which comes under its cognisance. It may falter and go astray a thousand times in pronouncing upon the several "instantiæ," as Bacon calls them, or the several phenomena and indications of truth, as well as stumble in the grand preliminary affair of determining what are, and where it is to look for, the only competent sources of information. I would by no means, therefore, be understood as narrowing and reducing the intellectual causes of error in spiritual inquiries to the single cause which I have chiefly dwelt upon. All I mean is, that this cause is undoubtedly one of the causes which produce so deplorable a result as that which we still see before our eyes; and further, that, from its very nature, and from its place of operation, it is a cause of error which must operate with more powerful and pernicious effect than any other purely intellectual cause of error that can be named. This results, I repeat, from its very nature and place of operation; for it is a cause of error operating at the very beginning-at the very foundation of inquiry, and poisoning the very fountainhead of truth. The primary question in every investigation being,-What is the proper quarter to look to for evidence? what description of evidence is the legitimate description? what witnesses are really entitled to be called in the cause? It is plain, that if we go wrong in this preliminary point, we go wrong vitally and fundamentally. If we go to the wrong quarter for evidence altogether, this is a vastly more serious error than any error of judgment into which we might fall in pronouncing upon the details of evidence obtained in the legitimate quarter. Indeed, this preliminary mistake is one which no subsequent efforts can remedy-if we get upon the wrong road of inquiry, the more energetically we travel forward the farther we go astray: whereas, if we enter the right path from the first, we may indeed take many a false or faltering step subsequently, but still we shall remain in the line of truth, and shall securely reach the terminus of truth in the end.

Assuming, now, upon the strength of these considerations, that there does exist such an intellectual source of error as that now referred to, in men's views of spiritual science, we cannot hesi tate also to be of opinion, that if any intellectual remedies can be found to meet the evil, they ought to be applied. A fundamental intellectual error ought surely to be met with an intellectual remedy equally fundamental, if such a remedy can be found; and although, even after the application of this intellectual remedy, the moral sources of error in spiritual science will still remain to be closed, although, even after the intellect is set right upon the fundamental principles of spiritual research, the heart will still remain to be renewed and sanctified; yet, would not a right state of the intellect be auxiliary to the production of a right state of the heart? For if it be true on the one hand, that the intellect is acted upon by the state of the heart, no one can doubt that it is equally true on the other, that the heart is acted upon by the state of the intellect.

Does there exist, then, you will ask, any such intellectual remedy? Is there any such available? It appears to me that there is a twofold intellectual remedy within our reach.

1. We may obtain a farther and fuller development of Baconianism, so as to bring it to bear as clearly

and unanswerably upon spiritual science as it is already universally admitted to bear upon physical science. Already it is sufficiently developed to apply to the question,-"How are we to learn the realities of the materia world?" And what is still lacking, and still possible, is, to develop it still further, so as to bring it to bear upon the far more important questions,-"How are we to learn the realities of the spiritual world? How are we to know, with respect to the universe as a whole, whether it contains a spiritual world at all?"

2. I would suggest, as the other part of this intellectual remedy, that all theological education should be based upon the principles of Baconianism thus fully developed. All students of theology should be taught what is and must be the only right way of theologizing before they proceed to theologize. They ought to be thoroughly disciplined in the fundamental principles of spiritual inquiry before they advance to the actual business of inquiry. If a parallel discipline in the school of Bacon is universally allowed to be the best, and, indeed, the only good preparation of mind for physical investigations, is it not probable, "a priori,"-that the discipline which we suggest must be the best, and, indeed, the only good intellectual preparation of mind for the investigations of scientific theology? Indeed, I


would go farther, and suggest that such a discipline of the human intelligence, in the fundamental principles of all knowledge should form an essential part of general and common education. If we think it right, and find it practicable, to teach our youth how to speak, why should we not also think it right and practicable to teach them how to think and how to inquire? Grammar is a very abstract subject, and yet all men are agreed that there should be grammarschools. Baconianism in its fundamental principles, is not nearly so abstract a subject as grammar; it rests upon the common sense of mankind; it is grounded upon the most simple and elementary principles of the human intelligence; it is the reflexion of human intelligence mirrored back so faithfully, that that intelligence cannot fail at once, and without effort to recognise its own image; and therefore, we do not fear to offer the suggestion, that in every school where grammar is taught, there Raconianism in its first principles, or the simple logic of nature, should be taught also.

propose to


Acting upon these views and convictions, оссиру the earlier half of my Lectureship this session, with an exposition of the principles of the Baconian Logic when fully developed and expanded, and when brought to bear, in this expanded form, upon the investigations of spiritual or theological science. Exegetic or interpretative theology, is the department intrusted to my care in this school of Divinity, and I feel that I shall be keeping strictly within the line of my proper province, and engaging you in a study altogether appropriate to the course of instruction which you have a right to expect from me, when I offer to you an exposition of the fundamental and axiomatic principles of all spiritual

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THE winter session of the English Presbyterian College was opened on the 12th Oct., at 16, Exeter Hall, when an introductory lecture was delivered by Professor Lorimer. This lecture we need not characterize, as it is given at length in the present number. We also give an extract from the work of the Rev. Mr. Fairbairn, on the typology of Scripture; and we rejoice that our students are this session to have the privilege of being instructed by so able and sound a theologian, and so accomplished a scholar, as Mr. Fairbairn is known to be.


It has pleased God in all times of the Church, to choose some of his most honoured and

"The Committee of the Bursary Fund desire to draw your attention to this important object, and to the claims which the Fund has upon the members of our Church.

WITH our next number for December, which successful servants in the ministry of the closes the first volume of the "Messenger," Gospel, out of the poor of this world. We a full and methodized Index will be pub- might give a long list of men, distinguished lished. We are glad to be able to state that for learning and eloquence, and varied gifts our circulation is increasing, having steadily as well as graces of the Holy Spirit, who advanced, until now upwards of 2,000 copies never could have obtained the education and monthly; and, as the number of readers must training necessary to prepare them for public be large, perhaps eight or ten thousand, we usefulness, without the assistance supplied by others more favoured in outward circumhope that our labours are not without some use for the ends for which the paper was stances. Many of the most eminent men in established. During next year we trust that the Anglican Church, have owed their educaa still greater field of usefulness may be open tion to the noble foundations of former days to us, and no exertion will be spared to in the English Universities for "poor schorender our paper more worthy of increased lars." To qualify men, not for scholastic support. There is no other organ of Presby-eminence, but for the honourable labour of an terianism in England, and it is not too much educated ministry, is the object of the Bursary to ask every one who believes that our system Fund of our Presbyterian Church, concerning is the scriptural form of Church polity, and which the Committee have issued the folthat the Gospel can be best extended through lowing circular:its instrumentality, to aid us in diffusing information concerning the principles and practices of the Presbyterian Church. Our efforts are not, however, limited to this denominational object, but we try to promote "The progress of the Presbyterian Church personal and practical godliness by the inser- in England is not only at present entirely tion of articles bearing on doctrinal and ex- arrested, but the supply of ministers is very perimental religion. As we receive many inadequate to the wants of our existing conletters of encouragement and offers of sup-gregations. It has become quite clear that it port, we would suggest one way by which effectual service may be rendered. There are very few of our subscribers who could not, without the slightest inconvenience, afford three pence a-month for the advancement of Presbyterian principles and of Evangelical truth. Let them order from their booksellers, therefore, two copies instead of one of the January and following numbers of the "Messenger," and lend or send the additional number to friends. In this way the same good DANGER OF BEING DECEIVED.-All come would be done as if a great expense were innot home at night who suppose they have set curred in advertising our paper; with the their faces heavenward. It is a woful thing advantage of a specimen being given of the to die, and miss heaven, and to lose house-journal advertised. Our circulation has inroom with Christ at night: it is an evil creased hitherto by one shewing the paper to journey where travellers are benighted in the another, and we trust that all who can afford fields. I persuade myself that thousands threepence a-month additional will attend to shall be deceived and ashamed of their hope; our suggestion. This trifling aid spread over because they have cast their anchor in sinking a large number will answer the same end as sands, they must lose it. Till now, I knew great sacrifices made by a few for the good not the pain, labour, nor difficulty that there of our Church. We are anxious that the "Messenger," and other publications bearing on Presbyterianism, should have increased circulation in this country, because we are sure that our system, which is that of all the Reformed Churches, save that of England, only requires to be known in order to be admired and received more widely than at present. We beg our ministers, elders, and deacons, to aid us in this matter. Sixpence a-month, instead of threepence, is not a great sacrifice to ask for promoting a good object; The Bursary Fund has consequently been and these additional copies circulated through-formed for the purpose of giving assistance out England may, in a year's time, have done to deserving young men, who, after much for the spread of our principles, and thorough examination, are considered fit car for the progress of our Presbyterian Church. didates for the ministry, to enable them to

as well as of all physical interpretation.

is to win at home; nor did I understand so

well, before this, what that meaneth, "The righteous shall scarcely be saved." Oh, how many a poor professor's candle is blown out, and never lighted again! I see that ordinary profession, and to be ranked amongst the children of God, and to have a name among men, is now thought good enough to carry professors to heaven; but certainly a name is but a name, and will never bide a blast of God's storm. I counsel you not to give your soul, nor Christ rest, nor your eyes sleep, till ye have gotten something that will bide the fire, and stand out the storm.-Ruther


is hopeless to look to the Churches in Scot-
land and Ireland for a sufficient number of
regularly trained men competent for the work
required in England. With the view there-
fore of preparing and educating a native
ministry, the College in London was es-
tablished. But the College will not accom-
plish this end without students: and it is
therefore a pressing duty upon the office-
bearers and members of the Church, to look
out for young men possessed of the gifts and
grace necessary for the high and solemn office
they are intended to fill.
ministry is the want of the times; and a
thoroughly qualified and deeply taught mi-
nistry is essential to the successful prosecution
of our Church's mission in England.

'An earnest


"Under such circumstances, the first duty of the Church is to call out and encourage most gifted and pious of its young men to devote themselves to the work of the ministry; and to aid in providing the means, when necessary, so that their whole time and attention may be given to their studies. The College, while it provides the education, makes no provision for the support of the students, as is the practice in other dissenting colleges in England; the plan pursued in Scotland, in allowing the young men themselves to provide board and lodging, has been considered the most advisable in our present position.

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give their undivided time and energies to the
preparation for this solemn office. Last Ses- THE Treasurers have now gratefully to ac-
sion, six students received aid from it, the knowledge to the Churches the kind responses
whole, with the exception of a small amount, made to the call on their liberality. They
was contributed in Manchester. The Com-regret that, in consequence of the long absence
mittee look to the friends of the Gospel, in from town of one of them, this could not be
other towns, for the means of enabling them done sooner.
to continue this assistance in the present and
future Sessions. Any one giving a Bursary
of 251., may apply it for the behalf of any
promising young man in whom he takes an


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A considerable number of the
Churches have not yet made their returns,
but this, it is hoped, will be attended to soon.
It is of much importance that all our people
should be interested in this glorious object,
and assist by their prayers, and by their Belford, Rev. John Watson .. .. .. ....
offerings, however small. (2 Cor. viii. 12.)

Bolton, Rev. David Magill


Liverpool, Canning-street, Rev. Jos.
R. Welsh, M.A.

St. George's Church, Rev. Donald



"The Committee leave their case in the hands of the Church, feeling confident that its importance will ensure a ready response. In no way can the cause of religion be more effectually advanced, than by aiding in this Douglas, Isle of Man, Rev. James work; in no matter is the call for aid more urgent at the present juncture; and there is no object in which the donor can better follow his gift, and discern the good of which he has been the instrument. The blessing of many souls awakened through the labours of a minister devoted to his Master's work, will rest upon the head of the man who had supplied the means of furnishing and fitting him for it. The harvest truly is plentiful, but the labourers are few; pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he would send forth labourers into his harvest.'


"THOMAS GREIG, Convener. "Manchester, October 7, 1847."


Collection .. .. .. .. .. .. ......

Whitehaven, Rev. Joseph Burns, inclu-
ding Sabbath-school children and

Berwick, Rev. Alexander Murdoch
Lowick, Rev. Thomas D. Nicholson..
Tweedmouth, Rev. Robert M'Clelland
Ancroft Moor, Rev. William Ryder


Birmingham, Rev. J. R. Mackenzie-
Collection ................................ 21 9
Association ................
9 14 0

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0 12 1

17 3 3

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Sabbath School

Missionary Box

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Robert A. Macfic, Esq., second Dona-
tion for China



Mrs. Montgomery
George F. Barbour, Esq., Man-

Kelso, Mrs. Henderson .... (Annual)

Kelso, Miss Curle ........ (Annual)
Glasgow, Misses Moubray and Mack-


Miss Matheson...


Manchester, A Thank-Offering ...

: Glasgow, Proceeds of work, by

100 0 0 0 10 0

a young Lady Mrs. Townsend .. .. .. .. (Annual) 1 0 0 Four-pence every Sabbath Morning 0 17 4 Half-penny per week, by three 066 ................



young friends



A Friend to the cause of Evangelical
Truth ......

21 12 4

A Missionary Box, at 3, Clifton-

3 12 4

0 15 1

2 10 7

31 14 0
25 10 0

25 9 7

27 19 0

Association ................ 41 0 1
Collection .................. 78 4 5

THE last Indian Mail has brought to us the melancholy tidings of the death of this faithful and highly-esteemed minister of Christ. Ten years ago, in September 1837, Mr. Macdonald left River-terrace Church, Islington, of which he was pastor, to enter upon missionary work in India, toward which his heart had long been turned. The value however of his pastoral services, both in the pulpit and in family visitation, was such as to lead to his being withdrawn by degrees from duty among the natives, and he was appointed minister of the Presbyterian Church at Calcutta. His labours were greatly blessed in this charge, and we have heard some who knew him well, speak with gratitude and affection of his ministerial usefulness. Among his former people at Islington, and the brethren of the London Presbytery, his memory is fondly cherished; and the loss has been felt by us as of one of our own number, with whom though long absent a near and Sunderland, St. George's, Rev. J. T. dear relation subsisted. The father of our departed friend is the venerable Dr. Macdonald, of Ferintosh, who has long been well known in Scotland for the faithfulness and power of his preaching, and among the Gaelic people is usually called "The Apostle of the North."

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4 6

2 12 5


2 14 3

4 7 7

Jamaica, Bathabara, Mayhill, per
Rev. Mr. Aird
William Mackenzie, Esq.


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To the Editor of the English Presbyterian Messenger.

34 0 0 DEAR SIR,-Annexed I have the pleasure to hand you a memorandum of contributions received from "John Knox's" Juvenile Missionary Association :


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32 0 0

1 2 7


1 0


1 60

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Groat Market, Rev. Patrick L.

13 0 4

Monkwearmouth, Rev. John Fisher ..
Gateshead, Rev. Thomas K. Anderson,
Collection and Subscriptions
Newcastle, Trinity, Rev. William

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High Bridge, Rev. Josias L.
Porter, M.A.-

Collected by Miss S. Brown..
Collection .................. 4 7 6
North Shields, Rev. George J. Duncan-

Miss Drury's Missionary Box
Part of Sabbath School Mis-
sionary Association........

South Shields, St. John's, Rev. John
Storie, Sabbath School Boxes......
Jarrow, Rev. Wm. Black
Wark, Rev. J. Johnston ............
Blythe, Rev. W. O. Johnston ........
Seaton Delaval, Rev. John M'Murray..

2 13 6
15 0 Bavington, Rev. A.ITrotter, M.A.
22 0 0 Harbottle, Rev. S. Cathcart .. .. .. .. ..


Presbyteries' Proceedings.


THIS reverend Court met by adjournment, on the 30th September, and was constituted with prayer by the Rev. James Hamilton, Moderator, p.t.

The Presbytery took up the case of Mr. Macaulay's translation; and parties having 8 6 0 been called, Messrs. Batchelor, Dowie, and Glen, appeared as Commissioners from the 0 | congregation at Edward-street, and Mr. Ma1 0 0 | caulay for himself.

2 18 8
5 0

1 10 0
1 48

Mr. Dowie then addressed the Presbytery on behalf of the congregation at Edwardstreet, to the effect that the utmost con20fidence and sympathy existed between Mr.

1 15


Macaulay and his people; that their existence | Nicolson, the Convener, the Report of the as a congregation depended entirely upon Committee appointed to co-operate with the the continuance of Mr. Macaulay among them, Edward-street congregation, rejoice to find and that the adherence of not a few of their that the congregation has secured a conmembers to the Presbyterian Church in venient place of worship, refuse to accept of England would be greatly endangered by his Mr. Macaulay's resignation, and resolve to removal; that they were all most desirous to retain him as minister of his present charge; enjoy the benefit of Mr. Macaulay's ministra- which judgment having been intimated, Mr. | tions; that a place of worship was now in the Macaulay acquiesced in the same, took inmarket, which might be secured on very struments, and craved extracts, which were reasonable terms; and that they fondly granted. cherished the hope that the Presbytery would see it to be their duty to interpose their authority to retain their pastor in his present charge.

The rest of the Commissioners successively addressed the Court, and acquiesced in all that Mr. Dowie had stated; there was a numerous attendance on the part of the congregation, who obviously took the deepest interest in the whole proceedings. Mr. Macaulay was then requested to state his own feelings and sentiments, and he expressed a desire first to hear those of his brethren.

In reply to a question from the Court, Mr. Dowie stated, that the place of worship to which he had alluded, might cost about 1,000l., and that this sum might enable their gation to be a self-sustaining one.


Parties were then removed, and Mr. James Hamilton, after having addressed the Presbytery at some length, concluded with the following motion, which was seconded by Professor Campbell, viz.:-"That the Presbytery, having heard the Commissioners from Edward-street, and considering on the one hand, the importance of retaining Mr. Macaulay in London and the Presbyterian Church in England, and considering farther, the warm attachment of his flock and the efforts and sacrifices which they have made in the cause of this Church, and the injury likely to be inflicted on them by the removal of their pastor, refuse, in hoc statu, to loose Mr. Macaulay; and, in the meanwhile, appoint the following Committee to co-operate with the congregation in procuring a more suitable place of worship, instructing them to report to next meeting of Presbytery, with a view to the final disposal of the case, and empowering them to collect money, should they see cause, viz.,--Messrs. Wm. Hamilton, Nisbet, John Johnstone, Forsyth, Morris, Dobie, Weir, James Hamilton, and Nicolson; Mr. Nicolson to be Convener."

All the members of Court having severally supported this resolution, and given various reasons against loosing Mr. Macaulay, on the motion being put from the chair, Mr. Macaulay rose and stated that, when he accepted the appointment to Malta, he had no idea that the Presbytery would thus interpose; but finding the unanimous mind of the brethren to be against his accepting the charge, and that the present congregation would probably be scattered in consequence of his removal, he would leave the disposal of the matter in the hands of the Presbytery. Whereupon the motion of Mr. Hamilton was unanimously agreed to.

Messrs. James Hamilton, Nicolson, and the Clerk, were appointed Assessors, with the Professors, for the purpose of examining students prior to their admission to the theological classes.

The Presbytery adjourned to meet at 16, Exeter Hall, on the second Tuesday of October next, at three o'clock, P. M., and the sederunt was closed with prayer.

The Court met again at 16, Exeter Hall, on the 12th October, and was duly constituted by the Rev. Wm. Chalmers, Moderator.

The Presbytery, having received from Mr.

A letter, from Mr. Robert Henderson, de"mitting his charge at Westminster, into the hands of the Presbytery, and craving a Presbyterial certificate, in the prospect of being engaged in another part of the bounds of the English Presbyterian Church, was produced, and read. The Presbytery unanimously agreed, that Mr. Henderson's request should be complied with, and instructed their Clerk accordingly.

A memorial, from certain members and seat-holders, belonging to the Presbyterian congregation at Westminster, was produced and read, craving that the Presbytery would be pleased to appoint a day for moderating in a call from said congregation in favour of a


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The Presbytery, deeply sympathizing with the Westminster congregation, and anxious to promote their views in every competent way, appoint a Committee to meet with the congregation; ascertain whether, in all the circumstances of the case, they are ripe for calling a minister, and report to next meeting of Presbytery. The Committee are Messrs. Nicolson, Forsyth, and Fisher, Mr. Fisher, Convener.

In accordance with the prayer of a memorial from certain members of the new Presbyterian congregation lately formed in Islington, the Presbytery appointed the following to act as a temporary Kirk Session in connexion with said congregation; viz., Messrs. James Hamilton, Nicolson, and Ferguson, ministers; and Messrs. Wm. Hamilton and Bright, elders.

A memorial from the Presbyterian congregation at Hampstead was read, craving the appointment of a day for the moderation of a call from them in favour of a minister. The Presbytery appointed the following Committee, with instructions similar to those given to the Westminster Committee; viz., Professor Campbell, Messrs. Weir, Cousin, and Mackellar; Mr. Weir to be Convener.

The Convener of the Committee, appointed to examine Mr. Fleming, gave in a favourable report; and the clerk was instructed to furnish Mr. Fleming with a Presbyterial certificate in the usual form.

Mr. Wm. Hamilton, student of Divinity, having been called, appeared and delivered a sermon on 1 Thess. v. 22, 23. He was also examined on the Hebrew Bible, the Greek Testament, systematic theology, and ecclesiastical history. The Presbytery prescribed farther trials for him, and they agreed to meet on the 26th instant to receive said trials, and

for other business.

A reference, in a case of discipline, was brought up from the Kirk Session of John Knox Church, which the Presbytery agreed to take up at their next meeting.

The Presbytery adjourned, to meet at 16, Exeter Hall, on Tuesday the 26th instant, at three o'clock, P. M. Closed with prayer.


This Presbytery held its ordinary monthly meeting at Manchester, on the 5th October. The Moderator opened the meeting with

praise, the reading of the Scriptures, and prayer.

The Rev. Mr. Nixon, of the Free Church, Montrose, and the Rev. Mr. Watson, of Belford, Northumberland, being present, were requested to sit as members of court.

Mr. Cross, of Crewe, was elected Moderator for the next six months.

There was laid upon the table a call, duly attested, from St. Peter's congregation, Liverpool, to Mr. John Mathison, minister at Ecclefechan, Scotland, to be their pastor, which call the Presbytery sustained, and thereupon agreed to take the necessary steps to prosecute Mr. Mathison's translation.

The Report of the Committee appointed to confer with the memorialists, praying for the sanction of the Presbytery to their opening a preaching station in the North End of Liverpool, was given in and read. After due deliberation, the Presbytery unanimously agreed to decline sanctioning at present a second charge in the North End district, no sufficient reasons having been offered or admitted for the proposed disseveration, while, at the same time, they expressed the hope that, by the prevalence of harmony and zeal among all parties, and by the blessing of God, the Church there may so prosper and flourish, that at no very distant day another congregation may be formed in circumstances of amity and peace.

Mr. White gave notice, that he would, at next Meeting, move, that, in future, the Presbytery hold its meetings once every two months, instead of once a month, as at present.

A collection in aid of the School Scheme was announced from Islington Presbyterian Church, Liverpool.

Mr. Shaw requested leave to resign the charge of the preaching station at Chester; which resignation having been accepted, the thanks of the Presbytery were tendered to him for his diligent and faithful labours there, and a Committee was appointed to watch over the interests of the mission at Chester.

The Presbytery adjourned to meet at Liverpool on the first Wednesday of November next, at eleven, A.M.


THE Presbytery met at Etal, on the 21st August last. The sermon was preached by Mr. D. Munro, of North Sunderland, from Rom. iii. 21-26.

A letter received by the Moderator from Mr. M'Clelland was read, requesting, in consideration of ill-health, leave of absence for a time, the supply of his pulpit, and the appointment of one of the members of Presby tery to preside at meetings of Session during his illness. A request was also made from the Session through Mr. Tennant, elder, from Tweedmouth, that one of the members of Presbytery be appointed to dispense the Lord's Supper to the congregation. Mr. Murdoch was appointed to do so on the 26th September, and to preside as p.t. Moderator, in the Session. Mr. Hall of Crookham, was appointed to preach at Tweedmouth till further arrangements.

Commissioners having appeared from Norham, to solicit supplies, and the appointment of a minister to preside at a congregational meeting, Mr. Murdoch was appointed accordingly, and supplies ordered till the 19th.

It having been reported that Mr. Donald D. Maclean, had been appointed as teacher of the school at Tweedmouth, in the beginning of July last, the appointment was sanctioned by the Presbytery.

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