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even of the common feelings of human But how are we to provide for our aged fathers, and our broken down brethren-disabled in the service of God and of the Church by the superabundance of their labours? There must be a fund for this purpose, and as it would be injudicious and injurious to multiply funds, a Central Sustentation Fund would accomplish the object. Let a certain graduated sum be allotted to such cases, and the end would be answered.

But without dwelling at greater length upon matters that must be obvious to all, we close with inculcating one point, which will soon force itself upon the attention of all our people, viz., that whether the fund be central or supplemental, a fund to meet the necessities of our present condition there must be, and that without loss of time. We have already said, that the want of some such fund must and does, as we know, operate to prevent ministers of the Irish and Free Church from joining us, and to induce some of our present ministers to return to Ireland, where there is a Regium Donum, and to Scotland where there is a Central Sustentation Fund. It is all very well for some to say, those ought not to be ministers at all, who are actuated by such motives? But that is not the question. We are not here concerned with what ought or ought not to be, but with what actually is. It is for this we are to provide, for actual existencies, and not for Utopian visions. And why ought not ministers to be actuated by such motives? Can any man say, that a minister ought to remain in England, with fifty pounds a-year, when he has only to go to Ireland or Scotland, where he can do as much good, and get three times the sum, at the very least? Or why look only at the minister's duty, but shut our eyes to the duties of the people? If it is the minister's duty to labour in the word, is it not the people's duty to support him? And if his own congregation are unable to do so, then the Church must step in and assist them. It is vain for men to talk, "Oh ministers should live as did the apostles." Ministers will have no objections whatever to do so, provided the people will act like the apostolic be lievers. We read that in the apostles' days, "those that had possessions went and sold them, and then came and laid down the proceeds at the apostles' feet," and received what the apostles were pleased to return them for their support. Would those who desire a return to the apostolic practice conform to this model? But to speak in solemn earnestness upon a serious enough subject, something must be done, and that right early too. Our ministers have too high a sense of propriety, too keen delicacy of feeling, too much regard for themselves and their office, to expose their difficulties, or dun men for their personal and domestic necessities. But we know their circum

stances, we are acquainted with their feelings, and as we have no personal interest to promote, no selfish feeling to gratify, in advocating their case, we ask any man to place himself in our position, and then say, whether he would not feel it his most bounden duty to call, in his loudest tones, the attention of the Church to this most painful matter? And we are the more encouraged to proceed, that we know the more judicious, munificent, and influential lay members of our Church entertain precisely our own views, and are anxious only for some scheme by which our ministers' income may be augmented.

We trust that before next meeting of Synod, some plan may be maturely organized for establishing a Sustentation Fund. We shall be glad to receive suggestions on the subject from any of our correspondents, and if they seem to us to deserve it we shall give them insertion in the "Messenger."

sin in that matter required that they should reject his aid when granted for the dissemination of truth. The Scottish Covenanters could not approve of the State's endowment of "black prelacy," but they did not conceive that this furnished any ground why they should renounce their benefices. The Scottish Reformers, in the reign of James I., denounced many of that monarch's acts, and were not slow in telling him, his council, and his parliament, of their sins, but still they remained in their parishes. And why should Irish Presbyterians now refuse to follow the example of Ezra and Nehemiah, of Knox and Henderson, and Melville?

In fact there is a fallacy and something worse in maintaining that if the State errs, the Church should at once renounce— not its patronage, for there is no patronage in the case-not an Erastian usurpation, for no such usurpation is here pretended, but that support which the State is bound by its allegiance to its great Sovereign to GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE PRES- give, and the Church is entitled to ask.


THE General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland closed its sittings before we went to press last month, but we had not space owing to a press of matter to notice any parts of their proceedings, and even now we can notice only two subjects that came before that venerable court.

A memorial was presented, signed by some hundred individuals, praying the Assembly to repudiate its connexion with the State, and to renounce the Regium Donum. The Assembly refused to accede to the prayer of the memorial; and they did wisely and well. The matter being so far disposed of, it may be thought that we too should allow it to drop: and assuredly if we were indifferent to the maintenance of our principles, or to the well-being of the Sister Church, we would not write one more word about it; but as we conceive from the signs of the times that this is only the first of such memorials, and that year after year it is most probable the Assembly will be memorialized on the subject, we think it but an act of brotherly kindness, which our brethren are entitled to at our hands, that we should apprize them of the views which their friends on this side of the channel take of what is their duty in the matter.

It is not necessary that we should enter into the argument on Church Establishments: that we regard as settled, at least so far as to justify those who hold our views in receiving a State endowment.

Neither is it necessary for us to show that a sinful course on the part of the State does not necessitate the Church's repudiation of national support. Ezra and Nehemiah could not approve of the "Great King's" endowment of heathenism, but they did not consider that his

In relationships and alliances much more intimate than subsists between the Church and the State-that, for example, between husband and wife-the sin of the one does not warrant repudiation on the part of the other. But the proper illustration in this matter is not a husband and wife, but a trustee, and the parties for whom he acts. And will any one maintain that if a trustee errs in the mal-appropriation of a part of the funds committed to his charge, the parties entitled under the trust are to throw up the funds to which they possess a just claim?

That if the State errs, the Church is to renounce all connexion with it has never been a principle recognised or acted upon by the Church of Scotland. The only body we know of that ever put forward that principle are those commonly denominated Cameronians. But erroneous though we deem them to be on this point, they are at least consistent in "going through with it." They not only refuse, although maintaining the principle of an Establishment, to receive an endowment from what they consider a sinning State, but they also refuse to contribute to its support, except "for wrath's sake." They refuse also to accept of any Government employment, or to exercise any political rights, such as voting for a member of Parliament-and, in short, to do aught even in civil matters, which would tend to recognise even the civil rights of a sinning State. This, however erroneous, is at least honest. Granting the premiss, the conclusion is legitimate. Erroneous in political ethics it is sound in logic. In fact, there is no escaping from the consequence. If it is sinful for a Church to receive an endowment from a sinning State it must be equally sinful for an individual Christian. If it is sinful for the Church to perform her functions in alliance with a peccant Government, it must at least be

equally sinful for any of her members to perform any service which supports an erring Government and magistracy. And are our friends prepared to act out and out upon such principles? We hope not. But if not in one department, why should they in another?

We hope, therefore, our Irish brethren, so long as no Erastian interference is attempted with their spiritual affairs, will continue to receive their Regium Donum. Should the State, indeed, attempt to usurp their spiritual functions, or abridge their spiritual freedom, as she did with the Church of Scotland, then, but only then, our brethren ought to follow the noble example of the Free Church ministers. And we have no fear whatever but they would do so.

But while we thus maintain that the Sister Church ought to retain her endowment, we as strenuously maintain that it is her duty to bear a loud and clear testimony against the sinful courses of the State. And this they have done. The Assembly has denounced in the strongest terms the recent endowment of Popery at Maynooth. This is as it ought to be. It is what we knew would be from the very first, for we know the character of our brethren too well to doubt them. The sin is flagrant: it cries to heaven for vengeance against a guilty nation. In the mysterious providence of God, even in despotic states, the people suffer for the sins of their rulers, and how much more must this happen under representative governments? Our protests, therefore, and reclamations may not save us from our share of the national and secular cala

mities, but they will save us from personal guilt and future torments. Let us, therefore, continue to protest and use all legitimate and constitutional means to prevent further deviations on the part of the State from scriptural and Protestant policy; nay, let us put forth all our energies to undo the evil that has already been done. We are no politicians, and will neither by ourselves or others suffer the "English Presbyterian Messenger" to advocate any mere political measures. But we trust our friends will strain every nerve to strip Popery of all national support. Let the threatened consequences be what they may, the God who gave the victory to Gideon's expurgated, and therefore dimi

nished band, will in our case also conquer by a faithful sacramental few, while he would discomfit a heterogeneous mass. "Woe unto them that go to Egypt for help."

There is just one other subject that came before the Assembly, on which we intended to offer a remark, viz., the proposed Government Colleges in Ireland. But we perceive the Irish Church, as they well might, are not satisfied with the constitution of the proposed institutions. Indeed, the Government seem to be given over to a spirit of infatuation in all their educational and ecclesiastical mea


sures. In regard to the Scotch Church, | is true there are points of difference bethey in the most offensive, and indeed, tween us, and, were the Methodists less intentionally and propensely offensive pious, these differences would be more manner, insisted upon exercising the vital. But, if uniformity either of tenets grossest Erastian usurpation. But in re- or polity are essential to brotherly fellowgard to the Irish Popish Church they ship and friendly co-operation, we despair were profusely prodigal of their pledges of ever seeing intercommunion of kindly that they never entertained the remotest feelings and action between the various shadow of an intention to interfere with branches of the Church of Christ. With its internal economy. In the case of the our Wesleyan brethren we shall always Scotch Colleges they insist upon the esteem it a privilege to cultivate the rigorous administration of tests which closest fellowship, and co-operate in our would exclude from their chairs all who common Master's cause. do not subscribe to the tenets of an Establishment which ninety-nine out of every hundred in the kingdom, regard as based upon a compromise of most sacred principles, or at the least, all the true and leal-hearted Presbyterians, for whom these Colleges were really designed. But in the case of these new Irish Colleges, the same Government will not admit of any test which would exclude even an Atheist from their chairs. What can be the cause of a policy so fearfully inconsistent? or rather inconsistent only in the letter, while it is but too consistent in the spirit, for in each case the policy is equally and diametrically at variance with truth. Is it that these men wilfully hate the truth, or are given over to a reprobate sense of men, or know not what they do? Much as we condemn their measures, fearfully as we anticipate the consequences of their acts, we have no hatred to their persons, and would therefore willingly, if we could, believe that it was in ignorance they have done it at all.

The past history of Wesleyan Methodism proves that body to have been always distinguished for pre-eminent exertions in three great departments of ecclesiastical labour. First, the dissemination of the Gospel at home; secondly, the extension of Messiah's kingdom abroad; and, thirdly, the education of the young. The following condensed summary of the proceedings of the late Conference, which we extract from the "Witness," proves that the present generation of Wesleyans have not degenerated. One object we have, in giving the following document, is to stir up our own Church to emulate the exertions of our Wesleyan friends.

We learn from the "Watchman," that the preparatory Committee of the One Hundred and Second Annual Conference have been in full activity, at Leeds, during the past week. official statements, the progress made by the This gives us an opportunity of learning, by Wesleyans in carrying out their spontaneous engagement to do all in their power to promote and improve the education of the poorer classes. These statements were made at the meeting of the General Committee on EducaOur Irish brethren disapproving of what tion, held on Monday evening, when many appeared to be the intention of Govern- ministers and friends of education, not of that body, were also present. From the ment in regard to these new colleges, but Report, which was read by the Rev. J. C. hoping to induce our civil rulers to listen Pengelly, it appears that meetings to arouse to the voice of truth, have appointed a an increased interest in this great object have Committee to endeavour to obtain a been held in most of the circuits of the proper adjustment of their claims. We Society during the last year, and that the wish them success, but dare not antici- results of the appeals of Conference for pecupate it. Men who have acted as Herniary aid in its behalf, are as follows:— Majesty's Ministers have hitherto uni- Moneys promised in connexion with public meetings. formly and seemingly on principle done, can hardly now, even by the largest stretch of charity, be expected to pass any measure which can satisfy our Irish friends. In that case, the Irish Church must just adhere to principle at whatever cost, and the Belfast Memorialists who promised to provide so ample a substistute for the Regium Donum of the ministers, will have an opportunity of supplying an endowment to the professors, and bursaries to the students.


THE Annual Meeting of this body took place last month at Leeds, when various matters of the greatest importance were transacted. To no body of Christians have we been more indebted than our Wesleyan friends, and in the proceedings and prosperity of no denomination do we take a livelier and heartier interest. It

Amount actually paid
Proceeds of November collection

.£15,837 14 8

12,895 3 3 4,316 2 4

Total sum received 17,211 5 7

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Still due, nearly . . 3,000 0 0 The Committee express a hope, now that the means are placed at their disposal, of proceeding early to vote grants towards the expenses of outfitting schools. Far the largest portion of the funds had been applied in the due selection and training of masters and mistresses. During the year 136 candidates had offered themselves for training,—44 had been accepted and sent to the Glasgow seminary, 59 had been declined, 13 had withdrawn, and 20 remained under consideration. It was suggested that applicants should not be recommended who were destitute of requisite qualifications. There had been a decidedly

increased demand on the Committee for teachers; and they had recommended to various Wesleyan schools 51 male and 7 female teachers, in addition to 4 trained at their own expense, and under the patronage

of the Society. All their candidates had been trained in the building connected with the Free Church of Scotland, and arrangements had been made provisionally for a large number. The project of the Normal seminary was not, however, abandoned. Sub-Committees would probably soon recommend to the schools a collection of works in the various departments of general knowledge which would be suitable to them; but a new series of lesson or reading books might be found desirable. The duty of having the school buildings free from debt was strongly urged in the Report on Local Committees. After announcing that the committee's agent had been engaged in visits of inquiry throughout the country, and in inspecting the training seminary at Glasgow and the schools near London, and that next year he would extend that inspection to other districts, the committee expressed a hope that the great work of scriptural education would be still more seriously considered and zealously pursued.

Mr. Pringelly then furnished a variety of statistical details connected with Wesleyan education, of which the following is, we believe, a tolerably correct summary :— SUNDAY SCHOOLS.-England 3,840 35

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Annual cost of Schools, about £17,000 The Committee did not break up until a late hour, and will probably meet again during the sittings of Conference.

On Tuesday the Special Missionary Committee of Review was then assembled; Dr. Bunting in the chair.

The minutes of the Finance Committee, and of the General Committee, were then read, alternately, by the Rev. Dr. Alder and the Rev. John Beecham, from which we take the following facts ::

"The receipts from January to June, 1844, were 23,6247. 10s. 1d.; those from January to June in the present year had been 31,7851. 16s. 4d.; an increase of 8,1611. 6s. 3d. The expenses during the first six months of 1844 were 53,851. 6s. 1d., those for 1845 only 39,9721. 5s. 1d., a decrease of 13,8797. 18. The acceptances out in July last year, were 15,8247.; this year, 13,6587.; a diminution of 2,1661. The restrictive regulations of 1844 had operated effectually in reducing the debt, but no further reduction could be anticipated. It was calculated that the total expenditure of


the present year would not be less than But the formation and operation of
105,000l., and it was hoped that the income such associations are not left exclusively
would reach that amount. There still remained in the hands of congregations.
an unliquidated balance for 1843 and 1844
of 4,7757., and there was also an outstanding Synod, at its last meeting, enjoined upon
debt of 3,000l., arising out of the extra expen-
all Presbyteries:-" I. That Presbyte-
diture for the Gold Coast. It was stated that ries shall take special care that associa
there are new stations requiring eleven mis- tions be formed in all the congregations
sionaries; none of these demands can at present within their bounds, for the purpose of
be acquiesced in. There are claims on sta- obtaining subscriptions and donations in
tions already formed for at least thirty mis- aid of the funds of the Synod's various
sionaries, only fifteen of which can be now
granted, without the prospect of involving the
Society in further debt and difficulty."


On Friday evening the adjourned meeting of the Committee for the review of chapel affairs was held. These concerns are exceedingly weighty, and of the deepest importance to the welfare of Wesleyanism. It appears that from 100 to 120 chapels have been erected annually for several years past; and the Chapel Building Committee, without whose permission chapel can be built or enlarged, during the last year gave permission for the erection of upwards of 130 chapels, the estimated expense of which is upwards of 50,000. Nearly a quarter of a million of money has been expended within the last few years in reducing chapel debts, which had become oppressively burdensome, and the great object of the Committee is to devise some means of preventing the recurrence of evils so detrimental to the progress of the work of God in this branch of the

Church of Christ.

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schemes. II. That Presbyteries shall give diligent heed that such associations are not only well organised, but kept in active operation; and for this purpose shall once a-quarter, at least, ascertain what sums have, since the preceding inquiry, been contributed by each congregation within the bounds, shall insert the same in their records, &c. [We hope this rule is observed throughout our Presbyteries.] VI. That inasmuch as the success of the various schemes must, under God, depend upon the manner in which the associations are organised and

worked, it is a special instruction to all Presbyteries and congregations to have such associations organised without loss of time, and to see to their active and effective operation." It is also required by rule IV., "That each association shall elect its own chairman, treasurer, and secretary; shall, on the second Monday of each month, hold a meeting for associational purposes, and shall at such meeting pay such sums as may have been received during the past month, into the hands of its own treasurer, who shall, without loss of time, remit the same (according as each sum was destined by the donors) to the several general treasurers of the Synod's schemes, and shall also by next post communicate the amount to the Editor of the English Presbyterian Messenger,' in order to its being announced in the succeeding number of that publication."

BEFORE these lines can reach our readers,
we hope associations shall be formed in all
the congregations. What now, therefore,
remains is, that these associations be
strenuously and systematically worked.
The formation of such societies is worse
than useless if they are not kept in active
operation. It is an easy, and to some
parties a very pleasant thing to meet to-
gether, draw up resolutions, make speeches,
frame regulations, and (so far as a mere
Now we really do hope that these
waste paper constitution goes) form a so- regulations may not be allowed to remain
ciety. But there the matter is very apt to inoperative. Hitherto our meetings of
"take end," just precisely where it ought Synod have passed laws which have re-
to begin. Now what can be the use of mained a mere dead letter. Ministers and
such society manufacturing as this? The Elders have had their hearts for the mo-
treasurer, where is he? What is the statement warmed, and have purposed great
of his accounts-his coffers? The col-
lectors, what is their number-how em-
ployed-how succeeding? Is there life
in the body, zeal, energy, enthusiasm ?
Do all parties really feel that they are
engaged in a great and glorious cause?
Do they realize the magnitude of their
the sanctity of their avocations? Is it
obligations, the dignity of their office,
in the spirit of prayer they set out on
their mission? Are they sensible that
they are engaged in rearing the tabernacle
of the Lord, contributing to the conver-
sion of sinners, promoting the glory of
their Divine Redeemer? And is it with
a laggard step, a perfunctory spirit, an
inanimate heart, that men and women
should devote themselves to such work of
faith and labour of love?

things when they should return to their respective localities; but the warmth seemed to have evaporated on the way homewards, and next meeting of Synod have found matters just as the last had left them; a good deal of very sensible regulations in the clerk's hand on the records, and that was all.

But this state of things cannot continue. We are now in a better, a more hopeful condition. Our people are willing, nay, anxious to contribute; they need only to be called upon for their contributions, and occasionally stimulated to greater liberality. We hope, then, all our officebearers and members of committees and associations, will seriously ponder how much of our Church's success really rests upon their labours, and solemnly re

alize their obligations to God and the Church. If this, only this, is done in the proper spirit, our success will be certain, instant, and glorious.

It only remains that we exhort these associations to collect funds for all the schemes of the Church, the collectors entering each contribution under its proper head. There is no necessity for multiplying associations in a congregation: they would only jostle one another, and perhaps lead to worse consequences. One active association in each congregation is sufficient; but the association must feel that it acts for all our institutions-the College, the Home Mission, the Schools, and Foreign Missions. Each of these institutions may have a separate collecting card or book of its own, or what is perhaps simpler and better, one card or book divided into corresponding columns may answer for them all. If associations will apply to us, we shall be happy to furnish them with proper cards or books for the purpose.


into the communion of the visible

Let it be borne in mind, that these
youths are highly educated, equally so,
indeed, with many of our students of
theology; that they are subjected to a
most sifting probation before they are
admitted into the visible Church of
Christ, and that they belong to the
higher castes and move in the most re-
spectable circles of native society, and
the importance of these conversions will
be at once acknowledged.

In the apostolic Church native con-
verts were the pastors appointed to feed
and preside over their brethren. The
apostles, through the powers with which
they were endowed, could furnish their
converts with the requisite gifts for the
due discharge of the pastoral functions.
At present, however, missionaries cannot
intrust the pastorate in the hands of their
converts, who, though truly converted,
are yet deficient in the necessary gift of
teaching. But in the Free Church Insti-
tutions the students, while Heathens, are
trained in all the branches of human

knowledge. When, therefore, by the
grace of God, they are regenerated, jus-
tified, and sanctified, they are at once
prepared to become missionaries to their
kinsmen according to the flesh, and thus

children, the pupils would be removed in a body. How much, therefore, did we feel our unbelieving fears rebuked, when we learned that only about three or four hundred had been forcibly withdrawn? And this notwithstanding an unparalleled panic excited by Pagan priests and Heathen devotees, and kept alive by the most false and fabulous rumours and aspersions on the Christian missionaries, and despite too of the opening of the rival Heathen Institution, to which we alluded in our last.

We trust our brethren in Calcutta will thank God and take courage, and that their spirits will be cheered by the sympathy, support, and prayers of their brethren at home. That the present

panic will soon pass away, that it has happened for the furtherance of the Gospel, and will be the means of drawing greater attention to the Christian faith and its Missions, we most confidently believe.


THE following paper is extracted from our able and pious contemporary, the "Border Watch," a journal which we take this opportunity of strongly recommending to such of our readers as take

To the Editor of the Presbyterian Messenger. London, July 22, 1845. SIR,I felt pleased to find in the "Messenger of last month, that a Juvenile Association, in connexion with St. Peter's Church, every convert may be ordained a native in only a weekly paper. It is published

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Manchester, contributed the sum of ten pounds

towards the Home Mission Fund. Now, Sir, minister, and sent forth to declare unto
I think that example might, to a certain ex-
others the truths by which he himself
tent, be imitated by the juvenile friends of all was brought from darkness to light, and
the congregations connected with the Synod, from the power of Satan to the king-
were the minister, elders, deacons, or Sun-dom of God's dear Son. This proves
day-school teachers but to make known to the the far-sighted sagacity of him who
children what our Church is doing, and the founded the Free Church India Mission
claims it has upon them for their assistance.
At present I shall not enter into an enumera-
Institutions, the enlightened principles
tion of the benefits that might arise to our
on which they are based and conducted,
and the vast importance, relatively as well
as personally, of every conversion which
happens within their walls. In other
Missions a convert is merely a soul saved,
but in the Free Church Missions there is
in addition a minister prepared to preach
the Gospel to others.

Church from having our youth educated in
reference to her movements and her claims,
for I know full well that many of your readers
are much more able to write on this subject
than myself. Hoping that they may do so,
I remain, yours, &c.,


[This is a very sensible letter. We hope our friend will immediately start a Juvenile Society in the congregation with which he is connected, and that the example will be followed by others. Our youth, our children,

should be interested in the institutions of our

The Mission Institution at Calcutta, previous to these conversions, was at tended by some twelve hundred pupils; and can any one rightly estimate the importance of a seminary in which European science and literature in all their departments, leavened and sanctified with the Christian faith, are communicated to so many youths who are destined in a few FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND MISSION years to give the tone to native society?

own Church. Let a habit of giving to the cause of Christ be formed in them from their earliest years. May God give them grace to be more faithful than their fathers!-ED.]


SINCE our last publication the most cheering intelligence has arrived regarding the success with which God has been pleased to bless the Free Church Missions in India. Seven young men, who had for years attended the Institution, and had made considerable progress in their studies, have received baptism, and other two are under probation, of whom there are no grounds to doubt that they too will, in due time, be admitted

It has often excited our special wonder
how Heathen parents could allow their
sons to study in such a seminary, and we
can account for it only by giving the
glory to an overruling Providence. That
the sudden and simultaneous conversion
of so many youths should excite a panic
in a Heathen community so constituted
was to be apprehended, and also that the
attendance at the Institution should, in
consequence, be diminished. Indeed, we
feared that, considering the powers which
Indian laws give the parents over their

every Thursday by Mr. George Jamie-
son, Horse-market, Kelso, and has agents
in most of the towns in the North of
The "Border Watch" has
lish Presbyterians. It takes deep interest
strong claims on the patronage of Eng-
in our affairs, and has done much to pro-
mote our prosperity.-[ED.]


have attempted a very brief and necessarily In the former chapters of this series, we imperfect sketch of the condition of the Chinese, and of the hopes and difficulties which are calculated to promote or to retard their evangelization.

We shall now shortly review what we have already brought forward. Perhaps the scenes which we have scattered over so many pages, may excite more vivid emotions, if we collect them all in one picture, and make them visible at one glance.

Before doing this, however, we must advert to the state of missionary operations in the Celestial Empire.

whose zeal and unprincipled determination We have already alluded to the Jesuits, bore down all opposition, and established them in the very court of the Emperor at an early period. The varying favour of the emperors was insufficient to subdue their indomitable resolution, and in sunshine and storms they laboured on unscrupulous about the means, but

never, for a moment, forgetting the end they

had in view. Success, sometimes extraordinary, came to reward their exertions, and to stimulate their zeal. Princes of the blood-royal became converts to their opinions, and though some of them were at different times put to death, yet they were never utterly extirpated; and persecution only added fuel to the flame (as a crown of martyrdom was far more ardently desired than the glory of success). But what conversions were theirs? Observing the similarity which existed


between many of their own superstitions and the religion of the Budhists, they came to the conclusion that their opinions were substantially the same. So, by demolishing a turret here, and raising a pile there; by making some alterations in one place, and consenting to not a few compromises in another, they brought the two religions within no great distance of each other, so near, indeed, as to denude conversion of its glory. They looked at the superstructures (which were both the works of men's hands), and judged entirely from them, while they forgot to examine the foundations on which each were raised. They adopted, for the name of God, the Budhist name of Tien (or Heaven)-forgetting entirely to dissipate, at the same time, the ideas with which that name was associated.

However, let there rather be corrupted Christianity than no Christianity at all. The man who has emerged from the thick darkness of Heathenism, into the cloudy, yet to a certain extent, luminous, atmosphere of Popery, has made a great step.

If his conversion be the result of conviction, the inquiring mind which has led him thus far, (if its workings are not trammelled by the mother Church, which arrogates to itself the exclusive right of saying what is to be believed,) will not be content to remain in the mist, and cease to think for itself. The same God who made Pascal a Protestant, in the midst of Romanism, may cause a beam of heavenly light to pierce the cloud, and create a day in the bosom of the night. But it is a fearful alternative-Popery or Heathenism, and we have to bless God that the Chinese are not absolutely reduced to the choice.

At the commencement of 1807, Dr. Morrison, the first Protestant missionary to China, set sail for Canton. After leaving Romanism in undisputed possession of the scene for upwards of five centuries (for the first Popish mission was despatched by Innocent IV. in 1246,) the sleeping zeal and energy of Protestantism were roused, and, to the everlasting honour of the London Missionary Society, the mighty empire of China was included in their schemes of holy conquest.

Without entering into the historical details of this mission, (for which our limits are entirely disproportionate,) we may mention that Dr. Morrison was speedily joined by Dr. Milne, Mr. Medhurst, and others, who, though they were prohibited by the Government from occupying the same scene with the father of the mission, yet assisted him materially in another place; that, through the exertions of Dr. Morrison, an Anglo-Chinese College was founded, from which much good has resulted; that the Bible and many other books were translated into the language of the country; that a grammar and dictionary of the Chinese tongue were speedily composed, which has obviated a difficulty long and deeply felt; and that, in short, though many conversions were not made, the devoted men who founded the mission, by acting as pioneers, have conferred both on China and on future missionaries, benefits which are altogether incalculable.

of usefulness thus afforded, the Jesuits were | Gospel. All these circumstances are favour-
the first to take advantage. The English and able, and point out China as a more hopeful
American Protestants followed slowly in their field for missions than most countries on the
wake. Scotland, with its sometimes criminal globe. That difficulties will be found, we
caution and deliberation, has, as yet, done must expect. The character and manners of
little or nothing; and it was with the view of the people are decidedly unfavourable. We
exciting within our little sphere some interest have to do with a Government noted for jea-
in China, and some pity for the souls of its lousy and caprice, and we have little reason to
numerous inhabitants, that we have written the hope that its conduct towards us will be
chapters which have occupied our attention for different from what it has been in times gone
so many weeks.
by, when encouragement and persecution pur-
sued each other in quick succession. The
over-populated state of the empire-necessi-
tating incessant labour, will also act unfavour-
ably; but what are these difficulties compared
with the insurmountable ones which are gene-
rally supposed to exist. As long as we have
few or no physical obstacles to contend with,
to conduct missionary operations in China will
be comparatively easy.


Here is a country with three hundred millions of inhabitants, of whom not many hundreds have heard the glad tidings of salvation. One would think that the mere statement of such a case were sufficient to rouse all to action, but this it has not done; we are met on every side by objections. The Government is so jealous, that an entrance into the country cannot be obtained; the language is so difficult, that the acquisition of it is next to im- And now we appeal to all if something possible: intercourse with the natives is strictly should not be done towards the evangelization prohibited; preaching is on no account allowed, of the Chinese. Three hundred millions of and even the reading of the Scriptures is reck- human beings perishing for lack of knowoned a crime by the Legislature. Such is a ledge! This should be sufficient to rouse the sample of the excuses made by many for their Christian's feelings; but there are circumindifference to China. They say: "Our efforts stances connected with these myriads which at present would be vain we will wait and would rouse to action the merely benevolent see what God will do; perhaps he will cause man of the world. Night after night a cart some mighty revolution in the Government, or rattles through the streets of Pekin. It sets out in the feelings of the Chinese, which will make empty, but as it passes on its conductor hears the way open before us." Now, is such a a faint cry, as if from some deserted child. It consummation a reasonable object of expecta-is what he seeks. With rude hands he tosses tion? Can we expect that God will put forth it into his vehicle, and proceeds on his way. his power in a miraculous manner? Can we Another and another experiences a similar ever hope that, without some exertion on our fate, and when the load is completed, the part, the Chinese will become Christians? The whole are thrown with careless indifference conduct of the clown, who determined not to into a pit prepared for them. attempt crossing till the water in the river had rolled past, was wise compared with the behaviour of those who look on with indifference, while the "sea of death" is rolling its black waves over a mighty empire, and who lift not a hand to stay its progress or to neutralize its effects. They wait, forsooth, to see if its face will not become more calm and smooth ere they venture to throw a straw to the drowning wretches who cannot help themselves. Thus, even were the objections true, those who are indifferent to China would be inexcusable; but indifference must not only be inexcusable, but criminal, when it is known that the objections

are not valid.

Will a parent not feel for them?

To take another example-the condition of the Chinese women. Although they are not called by the name, they are really slaves, and are treated in a far more barbarous way than are many in that condition, even in America. Suicide among them is an every day occurrence. It is the only resource left them of terminating their miseries. Have the ladies who compassionate the Hindoos no pity for those of their sex in China, who are a thousand times more wretched? An association is forming at present in behalf of Syria. Is there no one to pity the poor Chinese, and to form an association in behalf of them? Will However difficult it may be for any one to the energies of the Free Church be contented get admission into the interior of China, the with their present sphere of action? There towns on the coast (especially the five whose are yet many countries to conquer, and if she ports were opened by the late war); the island has the missionary spirit which she appears to of Hong-Kong which is our own, and, there-have, she will extend her lines, and endeavour fore, possesses peculiar claims upon us; and to obey more nearly to the letter, the commany other places, afford arenas large enough mand of our Saviour, "Preach the Gospel to for the exertions of many more missionaries every creature." N. than have already been sent. The language we have shown to be more frightful at a distance than at hand. A very slight acquaintance with its structure will convince any one that it is even comparatively easy.

Intercourse with the natives is not strictly prohibited, and though preaching openly is not very often attempted, a congregation of Christians meeting privately is never interfered with. The edict, prohibiting the circulation of the The war which was carried on between this Scriptures, has recently been repealed, and country and the Celestial Empire a year or now a native may walk through the streets of two ago, gave a temporary shock to the opera- Pekin with a Bible in his hand, without risk of tions of the missionaries, but out of that evil interruption. The conversion of a native is there has resulted much good. The little not opposed, as in India, by the terror and stream that flowed slowly and with difficulty bigotry of his relatives, and by the more through the stones and rubbish which every-powerful indignation of a dominant priestwhere impeded its progress, was stopped, for hood. The religion of the country will offer a time, altogether; but when the obstruction but a feeble resistance. The Chinese are a was removed, it rushed with its accumulated

waters over a bed far more smooth and even

than before. Of the increased opportunities

thinking people, and the missionary has not,
as he is obliged to do in Africa, to create
mind before he can establish the truths of the

We intimated in our last number, that application had been made to a minister of the Free Church, specially qualified for the service, to become missionary to China. It is with very great concern we now state, that the party applied to has declined the office. Whether he may not yet be induced to consent, remains in the hands of God; but, at all events, the Committee will not be inactive in their efforts to obtain a fit man for this mission. We trust our friends will not relax their exertions in obtaining contributions for the Mission to China. Manchester, St. Peter's-square Church, we rejoice to hear, has contributed donations in aid of the funds. Let all already upwards of 1007. by private other Churches go and do likewise.

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