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And let all who are mighty at a throne | ranteed is not so extensive as could be of grace be instant in their prayers, wished, yet the commendations of Christthat the Great Head of the Church ianity expressed in the edict must have would himself provide a man for this a good effect, and in time be made the work, open up his way before him, means of procuring permission to preach and crown his labours with success. the Gospel throughout the whole empire.

The following is the translation of the memorial sent in by Keying to the Emperor of China, relative to the toleration of Christianity:

“Keying, a High Minister, Imperial Commissioner, and Viceroy of the provinces Kwantang and Kwansi, respectfully presents this duly prepared memorial to the throne. I, your Minister, find that the Christian religion is that which the nations of the western seas venerate and worship-its tenets inculcating virtue and goodness, and reprobating wickedness and vice. It was introduced into, and has been propagated in China, since the times of the Ming dynasty, and for a period there was no prohibition against it. Afterwards, because natives of China, who professed to follow its maxims, frequently made use of it

to commit mischief, the authorities made examination, and inflicted punishment, as is on record.

"In the reign of Kia-kin, a special clause was first enacted in the penal code, for the punishment of this offence, and hence the natives of China were in reality prevented from committing crime-the prohibition not extending to the religion which the foreign nations of the west worship.

"It now appears that the present envoy; Lagrene (the French Envoy), has requested those Chinese who follow this religion, and are in other respects blameless in the eye of the law, be held free from punishment for so doing; and as this seems what may be carried into effect, I, your Minister, accordingly request that hereafter all who profess the Christian religion be exempted from punishment, and, looking up, beseech the Imperial grace. If any should walk in their former ways, or commit other offence, they will be adjudged according to the established laws.

"With reference to the subjects of France, as well as of all other foreign countries who follow this religion, they are to be permitted to erect churches for worship only at the five ports open for foreign trade; and they are not to presume to enter the interior to propagate their doctrines. If any disobey this regulation, and rashly exceed the fixed boundaries (of the ports), the district authorities will at once apprehend them, and deliver them over to the nearest consul of their respective countries to be restrained and punished: they are not to be precipitately punished with severity, or killed. By this will tender compassion be manifested to those from afar as well as to the blackhaired race; the good and the bad will not be confounded together; and by your Majesty's gracious assent will the laws and principles of reason be displayed with justice and sincerity; -and this is my petition, that the practice of the Christian religion may henceforth entail no punishment on those who are good subjects.

"Whereof I respectfully prepared this memorial; and, looking up, I beg the Imperial grace do cause it to take effect. A respectful


(On the 9th day, 11th month, 24th year of Taukwang, the Imperial reply was received, assenting to the petition.)

The above mandate was received at Suchan on the 25th day, 12th month, 24th year of Taukwang.

This is now part of the law of China; and although the toleration here gua


We have much to say about the College. At present, indeed, we lack space to do justice to the subject. There is, however, one or two things to which we must call attention. our friends must have books, to them of no 1st. The Library. We are certain many of houses with such works? Let them at once use, lying beside them. Why lumber their be sent up to our library. Or if our friends cannot find it in their hearts to part with works endeared to them by associations, or ornamental on account of their binding, we shall be happy to compound the matter by accepting of the value in hard cash instead. Indeed, of the two, we must candidly confess we should prefer the latter. Our friends occasionally send us works which can be of no use to them, without, however, taking one moment's time to ask whether they can be of any use to us. But if they send us money, we shall then select the works we really need.

Our friends, we are sure, would feel for us, when showing strangers through our rooms, and obliged to exhibit our mere skeleton of a library. We have exhausted all our skill in apologizing for the indifference of our friends to this essential part of our machinery, and trust they will soon convert our apologies into laudations, and our shame into pride, as we point to our shelves. In our last and present numbers we have given the titles of all the works sent us, with the names of the donors. There is a number of other works purchased from funds granted for the purpose by the College treasurers. Our friends, therefore, can easily see that our present appeal is much


We shall, in the columns of the "Messenger," insert all the donations we receive, whether in books or money; but, again, we say, pray send us the latter in preference.

The importance, the necessity of a well furnished, well selected library, both to our professors and students, must be too obvious to need any proof. Neither professors nor students can purchase all the books they require. Professors are in the habit of referring to works which treat at length of subjects to which in their publications they can merely allude. But what is the use of referring to works to which students can have no access? Our students must be well read. The necessities of the times, the claims of


own Church, demand this. But how are they to study if books are not provided for them? We do trust our friends will not longer overlook this matter. To those who have laid us under obligations by their past contributions, we return, in our own name and those of the students, our cordial thanks, and beg to ask if they have not got some other works they could afford to send us? But to those who have not yet sent us any contribution, what can we say, but just this, that it will afford us great pleasure to tender to them also our thanks for favours received, and apply for more?

We would also beg ministers, guardians, and parents to look out for students for us-young men of talent, piety, and promise. Our Church must now lean upon her own resources. Our future ministers must be taken from our own families and congregations. Our Church,

consisting now, and henceforth, of English, Scotch, and Irish members, must possess a ministry suited to the character of its membership. English must be its basis, but English Kingdoms. And where are such ministers to be got but from among ourselves? Let young men, then, be induced to prepare for our ministry. Can parents regard it a sacrifice to dedicate their sons to Christ? or, if a sacrifice, ought it not to be offered willingly to him who yielded up himself a sacrifice to God for us? Let young men themselves seriously ponder, whether it be not their duty to prepare themselves for this glorious work. Let our ministers encourage their children in the Lord to consecrate their talents to the service of the sanctuary. Let all in their stations labour to provide for our Church men who may bear up our glorious standards in the face of the

interwoven with the excellencies of the Sister


And then our students must be patronised and encouraged. Instead of taking missionaries, teachers, and catechists from other Churches, our own students must be employed. Among our present students will be found young men equal to any that can be got from other Churches. It is surely a duty incumbent upon our ministers and members to lend every aid to these future hopes of our Church. They have hitherto borne their own charges, and in addition have paid the required fees for admission into the College. But in order to enable them to do so in future, the Church must

aid in providing employment for them during the summer months. The man who puts a student in the way of providing for himself, we hold equal to him who provides a bursary. We urge on all our people to keep these matters in constant remembrance.

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Ramsbottom. Wigan. Sunderland. Monk wearmouth.


NEWCASTLE. Groat-market. High-bridge.

Carlisle. Bewcastle.





Wark. Haltwhistle.

Some of these congregations, no doubt, have been vacant, and others may be considered merely as missionary stations; still it is desirable that people should be interested in the prosperity of, as well as enjoy the privilege of contributing to, all the schemes of the Church, if they are to be maintained in life and vigour; and the Presbyteries are urgently requested to see that an opportunity is afforded to congregations for this purpose.

We hear that the deputation appointed at last Commission of Synod, to collect funds for the Home Mission, are to be in town in a few days. We need not again express our hope that they may be received with all the liberality for which our people are so distinguished, when

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Who are the parties that constitute the said Presbytery of Dumfries, we really do not know, and we do not think it worth the trouble to refer to Oliver and Boyd's Edinburgh | Almanack" for the year of grace 1845, to ascertain their elsewhere unknown names. They may, for aught we know, or are likely to inquire, be most erudite scholars, most profound divines, most evangelical preachers, most laborious pastors, the most popular of orators, and the most beloved of men. But there are some two or three matters, of too little moment doubtless to engross any part of their attention, though of some small importance to more ordinary men, of which those said Dumfries Presbyters are wondrously ignorant or prodigiously oblivious. For example, they ask Mr. Murdoch whether he has signed the deed of demission? Do these learned ecclesiastics really imagine that Berwick-uponTweed is a parish of the Established Church of Scotland to which our friend had obtained "Crown presentation," and of which he became pastor at the point of the bayonet? Sign the deed of demission? Demission of what pray, gentlemen? What had Mr. Murdoch received from the Church of Scotland, which, in your most paternal solicitude, you were apprehensive he might, in a fit of foolish enthusiasm, have demitted ? Had he a bene | fice from, of, or belonging to that Church ? Had he kirk, manse, glebe, or tiends from that Church? Had he any civil rights and vested interests from or in that Church? Demit! What could he demit? What had you given him to demit? Berwick-upon-Tweed, whatever it may have been before the battle of Flodden, is not now a part of the ancient kingdom of Scotland, nor has the Church of Scotland any civil establishment there. Demit! Before demission there must have been possession. But Mr. Murdoch was not possessed or seized of aught of or pertaining to the Kirk of Scotland. What then, gentlemen, can you possibly have meant, what did you really understand yourselves, when you asked our Rev. friend whether he had signed the deed of demission? We shall feel truly obliged by your


But, having commenced a diet of catechetical examination, (we jalouse they are not so very fond of that in their own parishes,) they were resolved not to rest satisfied with asking one question, and so they go on to ask whether Mr. Murdoch had given "any declaration or indication whatever " of having seceded from the Church of Scotland, as by law established? Our Puritan fathers in this country have told us of an oath called the oath ex officio mero,



Church, and can the Scottish Establishment really imagine it can be endured from her? Should there be active hostilities between us it is her own fault. We defy her to injure us. She may if she pleases discover whether we can injure her. As for Mr. Murdoch and his congregation, let them, as we do, smile with compassion at the pitiable proceedings of the said Dumfries Presbytery.


from which they suffered not a little, and
our reforming ancestors have told us of certain
inquisitorial questions that used to be pro-
pounded to them, but we had heard so much
of the light and the liberty of this self-lauded
nineteenth century of ours, that we had in our
folly began to fancy that the days for demanding
of men to accuse themselves, had passed away
with the dark ages, and the darker systems in
which they had originated. Our Dumfries Pres-
byters, however, have convinced us of our igno-
rance, and we thank them for the boon. So then
we are to understand that this said Presbytery of
Dumfries, having no evidence whatever against
our friend, just clapped him from the bar into
the witness-box, and demanded that he should
criminate himself; and because he was enough The Clerk produced and read (1,) an ex-
of a British subject and a Presbyterian minister tract minute from the records of the Synod,
to refuse, they saved him and themselves all instructing the Presbytery of Lancashire to
further trouble by just at once declaring loose Mr. Campbell from his charge at An-
him guilty, and in the absence of all coats, Manchester; and appointing that the
evidence whatever, inflicted upon him all the professors be members of the Presbytery of
punishment that lay in their power. These London, with full power as constituent mem-
gentlemen who, Borderers though they be, did bers of Court: and (2,) an extract minute
not not know that Berwick-upon-Tweed was from the records of the Presbytery of Lan-
not a Scottish town, prove that they have not cashire, bearing that said Presbytery had ob-
forgotten certain ancient Border practices of tempered the instructions of the Synod, and
the bold Buccleughs and the Netherby Gra- | loosened Mr. Campbell accordingly. Where -
hams o' that ilk. Evidence of guilt is of no upon it was unanimously agreed that said
account with the self-termed Presbytery of documents be sustained, and that Mr. Camp-
Dumfries. If the accused does not criminate bell be admitted a member of this court in
himself, let him be punished as if he were terms of the Synod's appointment, which was
accordingly done.


THIS reverend Court held its ordinary monthly meeting on Tuesday, the 12th August; the | Rev. W. Nicolson, Moderator, in the chair.

But did these gentlemen really not know that they have no ecclesiastical power on this side of the Tweed?-that the "law of the land" forbids it—that their own General Assembly in better days disclaimed it—and that of all its opponents, its most unflinching antagonists were those very moderate ministers who now constitute the Scottish Establishment? Or do these gentlemen really imagine that they are benefiting the Scottish Kirk by their inquisitorial and ultra-judicial proceedings? We do not believe that even they entertain so fond an imagination. Or do they then fancy that they can injure Mr. Murdoch ? This is likely enough: and if so, we are truly glad to be able to assure them that Mr. Murdoch, like the Church to which he belongs, is perfectly independent of them repudiates their jurisdiction, and smiles at their assaults. The whole proceedings were outrageously inquisitorial, illegal, and inept.

But what can these Scottish Presbyters mean? Are they infatuated? Have they not enemies enough on their own side of the Border, provoked too by their own unjustifiable proceedings, but they must make a raid amongst us also ? Renouncing Isaac, do they take Ishmael for their father? Removed by territorial position from all intercourse, and having nothing either to hope or to fear from them, we were disposed altogether to forget even their existence, and attend to our own duties. But they seem to have such a restless craving for notoriety, that they are resolved to become as odious in England as they have made themselves in Scotland.

For some time past, indeed from the outset, we have, as a Church, done little or nothing to injure them. We have indeed done all in our power to testify our sympathy with, and our regard for, the Free Church, and we will at all hazards continue to do so still, let it offend or provoke whom it will. But what is all this to the Scottish Kirk? Does she fancy that we are to have no will of our own-that we are to be thirled to her, that we are to be her mere echo, her shadow, her humble serf? If so, it is time to undeceive her. Our ministers we will not suffer to be molested by other bodies. It would not be tolerated even from the Free


It was reported that Ranelagh Chapel, Chelsea, was opened on the first Sabbath of August, in connexion with the Presbyterian Church of England; that the attendance at all the diets of worship was very encouraging; and that the services of Messrs. Coupar of Burntisland, and Brown of Kenneff, ministers of the Free Church of Scotland, had been secured for the supply of this place of worship during eight Sabbaths.

Mr. M'Murray, of Seaton Delaval, was appointed to preach at Hampstead on the 17th instant.

A petition from certain inhabitants of Wolverhampton was produced and read, praying that the petitioners should be formed into a congregation in connexion with the Presbytery of London, and the Synod of the Presbyterian Church in England. The Presbytery unanimously agreed that this petition should lie on their table till their next ordinary meeting; and they appointed Mr. Chalmers to visit Wolverhampton, investigate the state of matters there, and report.

Mr. Nicolson reported, that an association had been formed at London-wall to prosecute the Synod's different schemes, and that they would be prepared to report progress in due time.

Mr. Gillespie reported, that the working of the association, at Regent-square, in aid of the said schemes, was satisfactory.

The collections appointed by the Synod for the 10th August, were reported to have been made at Regent-square, London-wall, Greenwich, and John Knox Church, on behalf of the School Fund.

At the request of Mr. Gillespie, one of the treasurers of the College Fund, the Kirk Sessions were instructed to collect the moneys subscribed by the members of the different congregations in aid of the said fund, and thereafter to transmit the same to the trea


The Presbytery authorized the Brighton Committee to take the necessary steps for obtaining a lease of Hanover Chapel there.

Mr. Henderson delivered a Homily and Greek Exercise, which were sustained as parts of his trials.

Messrs. James Stewart and Adam Stewart, students of divinity, were examined on the different subjects prescribed by the Presbytery, and the Court expressed themselves satisfied with the progress which they had made in their studies.

The Presbytery met, by appointment, at the Presbyterian Church, Southwark, on Tuesday, the 19th August, for the induction of the Rev. Joseph Fisher to that Church and congregation, and other business.

Mr. Wilson preached an able and eloquent sermon from Acts xiv. 3; and Mr. Chalmers inducted and delivered a very excellent and suitable address to the minister and people respectively.

The attendance was very gratifying, and there is every reason to hope that Mr. Fisher will soon have a flourishing congregation at Southwark.

A call from the Church and congregation at Leicester-square, in favour of the Rev. William Ferrie, minister of the Free Church of Scotland at Anstruther, in Fife, was laid on the table of the Presbytery.

The Presbytery unanimously agreed to sustain the same, and appointed Messrs. Nicholson and Chalmers as their commissioners to prosecute the translation of Mr. Ferrie according to the rules of the Church.

A Committee of Presbytery was appointed to meet with the congregation at Westminster, to consider what steps should be taken to advance the interest of that important station.

The Presbytery adjourned, to meet at 9, King-street, Parliament-street, on Friday 22d instant, for the purpose of receiving the remainder of Mr. Henderson's trials; and, in the event of their being satisfied therewith, of licensing him to preach the Gospel.


another meeting, at which the call to Mr.
Cowe was sustained, and the usual steps ap-
pointed to prosecute the translation; the Rev.
D. Fergusson, and A. C. Dunlop, Esq., being
appointed Commissioners for the purpose.
We do sincerely trust that Mr. Cowe will re-
gard this a call in Providence, and as such
at once aceept of it; and that the Presbytery
of Edinburgh, and the congregation at Porto-
bello, will throw no obstacles in the way. Our
friends in Scotland have no conception of the
position of matters in England, otherwise we
feel persuaded we should not encounter such
difficulties in getting ministers to occupy our
vacant pulpits.

FOUNDATION OF A NEW PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT MANCHESTER.-The foundationstone of a new Church and school-room, to be called "The Trinity Presbyterian Church and School," now in course of erection in the New Bridge-street, Strangeways, was laid on Wednesday, 13th of August, at twelve o'clock, with the customary ceremony. Among_the gentlemen assembled were the Rev. Mr. Fergusson, of St. George's, Liverpool, who acted as Moderator of Presbytery on this occasion; the Rev. Dr. Cooke, D.D., LL.D., of Belfast; the Rev. Alexander Munro, of the Scotch Church, in St. Peter's-square; the Rev. Mr. Gardner, of Birkenhead; the Rev. Mr. M'Gill, of Bolton; the Rev. Mr. Cathcart, of Wigan; Mr. Robert Barbour, Mr. George F. Barbour, Mr. A. Waddell, Mr. Walter Clark, Mr. George Longmore, Mr. W. Longmore, Mr. James Longmore, Mr. John Rea, Mr. John Stewart, Mr. William Allen, Mr. W. M'Ferran, Mr. Thomas M'Blain, Mr. David Duncan, Mr. Thomas Haslett, Mr. William Kirk, Mr. John Hall, solicitor, and Mr. Galt, bookseller. Documents, &c., put in the foundation-stone:-1st. "The Confession of Faith, with Assembly's Shorter Catechism." 2d. "Catechism of the Government and Discipline of the Presbyterian Church." 3d. "Pastoral Letter of the Presbyterian Synod of England." 4th. "Abstract of Minutes of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church in England (session 9th,) held at Birmingham, on the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th days of April, 1845." 5th. "Declaration of Independence passed at the Meeting of the Synod, held at Berwick-upon-Tweed, April, 1844.' 6th "The Standards of the Church of Scotland, and the Presbyterian The only important business that occupied Church in England and Ireland, or History of the Court had reference to the congregation of them." 7th. "Metrical version of the Psalms of St. Andrew's, Manchester. The Rev. Mr. David, as used by the Presbyterian Church." Gardner was appointed to preside, at the 8th. "The English Presbyterian Messenger moderation of a call from the said congrega- for August. 9th. The "Manchester Courier, tion, to Rev. Robert Cowe, of the Free Church, "Times," "Guardian," and "Advertiser," of Portobello, and the Presbytery appointed to this date. 10th. Coins of the realm, reign of meet on the 18th inst. to sustain the call. Victoria I. A plate was laid over these docuOn Tuesday, the 12th of last month, a callments, on which was inscribed, "The foundain favour of the Rev. Robert Cowe, of the Free Church, Portobello, by the congregation of St. Andrew's Church, Manchester, was moderated in by the Presbytery of Lancashire. It is much to the credit of this congregation that despite of all their disappointments and of the many difficulties they have had to encounter, they have yet persevered in hope and activity, and we trust they will at length obtain a pastor after God's own heart.

On the 6th ult., the ordinary meeting of Presbytery was held in the session-room of St. George's Presbyterian Church, Liverpool; the Rev. D. Fergusson Moderator. The Rev. the Moderator of the Free Church of Scotland, and the Rev. James Ferguson, of London, being present, were requested to sit and act as members of Court. There was a large attendance of members owing to services connected with the opening of St. George's Presbyterian Church.

On the day following, the foundation-stone of Trinity Church, Manchester, was laid. Of this ceremony, an account appears elsewhere. This congregation too has had to struggle with many difficulties; and to add to them we are exceedingly sorry to hear that their esteemed pastor, undoubtedly through his over laborious exertions, has been for a time, although we fervently hope, but a short time, laid aside from his active duties.

On the 18th ult., the Presbytery held

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tion-stone of Trinity Presbyterian Church in
connexion with the Synod of the Presbyterian
Church in England, and for the use of the
Irish Presbyterian Church assembling in the
Corn Exchange, was laid on the 13th August,
1845, by the Rev. H. Cooke, D.D., LL.D.,
of Belfast."

Wednesday afternoon, August 6, this hand-
some new building-the first in connexion
with the Free Church of Scotland con-
structed in this town-was opened for Divine
Service. The attendance was highly respect-
able, though, in consequence of its being a
business time of the week, not very numerous.
The usual plain but impressive service of the
Scottish Church was gone through, without
any inductory ceremonies as regarded the
Rev. Donald Ferguson, the respected pastor
of the congregation. An appropriate prayer

was offered up by the Rev. Mr. Ferguson, who afterwards read the sixth chapter of the Second Book of Chronicles, and the first verse of the seventh chapter. The eighty-seventh Psalm was then sung, and the Rev. Dr. Macfarlan, Moderator of the Free Church, took the pulpit. After a brief and effective prayer, the Rev. Gentleman delivered a most impressive discourse, of an hour's duration. A liberal collection was made. In the evening a sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Raffles. Immediately after the services of the morning, the members of the presbytery of Lancashire, the ministers of the various denominations who had been present, and the deacons and elders connected with the St. George's Presbyterian Church, sat down to a substantial repast, prepared in the school-room, under Mr. Lister's chapel. The Rev. Mr. Ferguson occupied the chair; various toasts were proposed and responded to, and the proceedings throughout passed off in the pleasantest manner. On Thursday night a very numerous and highly-respectable social meeting of the congregation and friends was held in the Music Hall. On the motion of Dr. M'Culloch, the Rev. Donald Ferguson was called upon to preside. The Meeting was addressed by the Chairman, the Rev. Mr. Fergusson, of London, Rev. Mr. Bevan, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, Rev. Dr. Cooke, of Belfast. The benediction was pronounced by the Rev. Dr. Crichton.


The Presbytery held its ordinary meeting at South Shields, on Tuesday, the 5th of August. After the minutes of a former meeting were read, and some routine business transacted, the Rev. Dr. Paterson reported that he and Mr. Lamb, two of the Commissioners appointed by the Presbytery, had attended the meeting of the Commission of Synod lately held at Manchester. He gave a short verbal account of what had been done at that meeting; and suggested to the brethren the necessity of paying special attention to the schemes of the Synod. The Presbyteries and Sessions, with their local knowledge and influence, must attend to them The deputations which the Synod, or its Committees sent out would utterly fail, and might do more harm than good, unless the inferior courts did their duty, and wrought them out in such a manner as to interest, encourage, revive, and strengthen the several congregations, as well as attempt to raise money for general purposes.

The Rev. Mr. Storie reported that he and his Session had engaged a room and a schoolmaster at a considerable expense, and asked the concurrence of this Presbytery in applying to the Synod Fund for some assistance to help them in the outset. There was already an encouraging attendance of pupils; and the school, after a year or so, might be expected to support itself.

A deputation from the people adhering to the Rev. W. Blackwood, in Newcastle, presented a list of persons desiring to be formed into a Church under his pastoral care. They assemble in considerable numbers in a large hall, and are taking steps to provide a place of worship for themselves. The Presbytery appointed the Rev. Mr. Duncan, and Dr. Paterson, as a deputation to visit these people, to make up a roll of communicants, and to report.

The deputation proceeded to Newcastle, on Tuesday, the 12th, and met with Mr. Blackwood and his people, assembled in the Music Hall. Dr. Paterson opened and addressed the meeting, and after divine

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worship, a roll of about 140 communicants | hitherto been kept ignorant of? And how | excellency and strength, and to show that he was made up; exclusive of several individuals present who had not with them their certificates, which they promised to produce hereafter.

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SEATON DELAVAL.-Mr. M'Murray is at present in London collecting money to build a church at this station, where it is very much needed, and where, from the success that has attended his labours, there is every prospect of a large congregation being soon collected. We hear that Mr. M'Murray means to visit Manchester and Liverpool early this month, and we trust the liberality that has always distinguished our friends in those towns will be displayed in favour of this cause. We assure them that the claims of Seaton Delaval are

most pressing. We have shown our liberality hitherto as a Church, chiefly in the aid we have extended to other Churches. We trust the habit of giving, which has thus been formed, will now tell in favour of our own congregations, who need aid as much as any people whatever.


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A Theological Discovery; or, an Exposition
of the Cherubim of Glory. By the Rev. A.
HUTCHESON, D.Ď., St. Andreæ Coll. et
Glascui Coll. Honorarius, Author of The
Guide to the Apocalypse," &c. (Minister at
Warringford.)-Alnwick: printed by W.
Davidson, and sold by John Johnstone,
Hunter-square, Edinburgh, and other book-
sellers. 1845. Price Sixpence.

Dr. Hutcheson is one of the very few Hutchesonians whom the progress of scientific criticism has spared to the present age. But he must not be supposed to be a servile follower even of his great namesake. Hutchesonianism, like every other-ism, is capable of progression; and much as our author has done, and we trust will be spared to do, for the system, no man will be more ready to admit that he will leave much, very much, for future Hutchesonians, before the principles of their system are fully understood and properly appreciated in this unimaginative and ratiocinative

world of ours.

Dr. Hutcheson, profound master as he evidently is of the recondite lore of Hutchesonian philosophy, archæology, and criticism, is fully aware that much as has been written on the subject by the school to which he belongs, the nature and the import of the cherubim are yet buried in the profoundest mystery; and keenly alive to the incalculable loss which thence accrues to our truncated theology, in the otium cum dignitate of his learned leisure, he set himself to supply the desideratum, and having, as he intimates on his title-page, made "A Theological Discovery," he now communicates it for the information of the world.

"The mystery of the cherubim," says our author at page 4 of his work, "the mystery of the cherubim, so far as we know, has never yet been unfolded since the days of the Apostle Paul, who apologized for not entering more fully upon it." Our author here refers to Heb. ix. 5, and then thus proceeds: "It is probable that Paul often preached on this interesting topic to the Jews, though he did not commit his inspired views to writing. What a prodigious loss has the Christian world hereby sustamed? What a powerful argument for convincing and converting the Jews have we




large a portion of the sacred volume has, by
this ignorance, been a sealed book even to the
learned. For we confidently aver, that much
of the marvellous beauty and moral force of
numerous passages cannot be seen or felt by
those who are ignorant of the awful mystery of
the cherubim. Besides (adds Dr. Hutcheson,
with much force), besides (which is a great
point) the goodness and impartiality of God
in his dealings with the nations of old, so far
as the diffusion of religious truth is concerned,
cannot be so fully and satisfactorily vindicated
to his intelligent offspring as they are capable
of being with the right and correct knowledge
of the cherubical mystery."

Such being the difficulties and such the
importance of the undertaking-difficulties
which have hitherto baffled all the efforts of
the world's literati - an importance which
must be doubly appreciated in this age of
missions to the Jews, and of controversies
among the Gentiles, Dr. Hutcheson has laid
the world under the deepest obligations by
removing the veil which has hitherto hung
over these cherubims, and disclosing to the
world "a right and correct knowledge of the
cherubical mystery.”

was to be the Lion of the tribe of Judah; and the face of an eagle to denote victory and dominion. The wings spread over the mercyseat, showed that the mercy-seat was to be under the protection of Him who was the promised seed of the woman; the hands under the wings denoted his omnipotence, or almighty power to save; the wings that covered the feet showed, that the mystery was not yet revealed, and the cloven feet with the sole of a calf's foot showed, that the whole fabric of redemption was based on the atonement of the cross."—Page 8.

We trust our readers are now convinced that a great "theological discovery" has verily been made, and that it "throws an immense flood of light on the Old Testament history, which our author says 'cannot indeed be fully understood without this exposition." Our space does not permit our following our auther in the prosecution of his learned labours, which go to "illustrate the theological history of ancient nations, and to show how pagan idolatry in all its peculiar and revolting forms arose (from a perversion of the cherubical symbols) but especially to open up the great mystery of godliness, God manifest in the But what were these cherubim ? They flesh, that has hitherto been concealed under were not angels. How can those who fancy these mystical emblems." The mystery which they were repel the force of the following Paul apologised for not unfolding, is now fully arguments? "Can we conceive that God disclosed to the world: And if our readers would give to his angels four faces, three of feel interested in the subject, we recommend which should resemble either those of brute to them forthwith to purchase "A Theolgical | beasts, or of birds that fly ? The conjunction | Discovery; or, an Exposition of the Cherubim is unnatural, the appearance uncouth, the of Glory," but we have already given the stature terrific, the feet uncomely. It is im-title-page at the possible, therefore, that the cherubim could be notice. angels, especially when we further consider the uses that God made of them. They were not made messengers, nor did they excel in strength, nor did they fly on wings of lightning's speed to execute the Divine commands. On the contrary, they were stationary, and were used as places of worship, or as pocket Bibles, to remind men of some great and momentous truth."-p. 6.

"But if they were not angels, the question is, What were they ? What can they mean ? We reply, they were symbols or representations of a great truth." But what is that truth ? Not the Trinity, as “ Mr. Hutchinson in his ، Principia, and Lord President Forbes, in his book entituled Christianity as old as the Creation,' vainly imagined. These great men, indeed, ، were near to the truth, but they never arrived at it. In their voyage of discovery they stopped short at some island, and never reached the unknown shores of America. They applied these symbols to the holy and adorable Trinity. . . . . . But it never occurred to these great men, that this view of the symbol gave a body and a calf's foot, to each of the persons of the Trinity, and caricatured. But we must refer our readers to the author's own prosecution of the argument, as they will find it at page 7 of his work."

But the question recurs, "What then was the grand truth which the cherubim symbolized?" And the answer is, "It was the great, the awful mystery of godliness, God manifest in the flesh," &c. (1 Tim. iii. 16.)


This was a truth to which the characters of the symbol were applicable. There was the glory above and between the cherubim to denote his divine nature, his participation of the Godhead. There was the human form, to denote the humanity of the promised Messiah. There was the face of a man, to complete the human form; the face of an ox, to show he was to be made a sacrifice for the sins of men; the face of a lion, to denote his


commencement of this

The Catholic Claims. A Letter to the Lord Bishop of Cashel. By BAPTIST W. NOEL, M.A. Second Edition.-London, J. Nisbet and Co., Berners-street, 1845. pp. 54. THIS is an honest, an able, and a fearless production. Whatever may be thought of the author's prudence, there can be no doubt of his powers; and his integrity and courage are beyond all question.

Mr. Noel, like all other true Protestants throughout the land, who know aught of Popery in its spirit, its tenets, or history, opposed the increased national grant to Maynooth. In that Parliamentary Act, he beheld in principle a concession fatal to Protestantism, and to Protestant Establishments. But, failing in his opposition, he is not of those who quiet their consciences by the self-flattering allegation, we have done all we could to oppose the evil, and all that now remains for us, is patient submission. Such is not the temper of Mr. Noel, nor the measure he advocates. He sees something for him to do, and that he is determined to do actively. He could not prevent Popery from receiving a national endowment, but he is not disposed to perpetuate the grant. To resist any longer the endowment of Popery might endanger the endowment of Protestantism in Ireland. To withdraw the endowment of the one, now that it is granted, might endanger the endowment of the other system. Well, if the question is either, endow both or neither, at once and without one moment's hesitation disendow both. Such is the conclusion to which Mr. Noel comes, and this conclusion he propounds in the most unambiguous terms, and advocates with the most zealous earnestness.

Mr. Noel shows the enormous evils which the Established Church has been the direct occasion, not to say the cause, of inflicting upon Ireland-an amount of evil absolutely ine-lculable, as it is unrelieved and uncompensated by any tangible or computable

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amount of good. To nothing else than the Irish Establishment can be traced the religious rancour and animosity that prevails in Ireland. Instead of converting the Irish papists, that Establishment has rendered Protestantism itself hateful in their eyes, and prevented their viewing it with an impartial judgment. Instead of cementing the union of the kingdoms, the Irish Establishment has been a wedge to rive them asunder- a negative element interposed to render positive union impossible-a repulsive element to make even approximation impractible. So long as the Irish Established Church exists, there can be no peace in Ireland, and no hope of popish conversions. There is no institution in Europe so incapable of apology, so instinct with mischief, so full of unmitigated, incurable evil. And is this an institution which ought to be maintained-for the support of which, the nation should forfeit the favour of God, by endowing the most monstrous system of error the world has ever beheld? Can any sane man hesitate about an answer? If the question be, either establish the Church of Rome, or dis-establish the Church of Ireland, all men who love the truth, will at once answer, dis-establish both.

Such is the argument of Mr. Noel. We cannot say that we altogether agree with him, as will be seen from some remarks we have offered on the controversy which has unhappily sprung up in the Irish Presbyterian Church about the Regium Donum. To this extent, however, we agree with Mr. Noel; the Irish Establishment we regard as a great evil-in fact, as at present constituted, a moral nuisance, which no man, be his politics or sectarianism what it may, can dare attempt to defend. It must be either reformed or destroyed. If incapable of reform, the sooner it is destroyed the better. Let Protestantism have a fair field, and even no favour, or rather let our glorious Presbyterianism, as represented by the sister Church, have free scope, and with the blessing of God, in another century Ireland is Protestant, Presbyterian, peaceful, prosperous, and pious. The sister Church has done this for Ulster; it can do it for the whole kingdom.


and if any parties insinuate the contrary, he | DONATIONS AND COLLECTIONS FOR has the fullest permission to give them promptly and once for all the flattest possible contradiction on our authority.


14. Mr. Welsh's Congregation, Liverpool Mr. A. C. Dunlop

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16. Regent-square,

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£2 0 4

........... 15 0 0


20 0 0


Collection, per Mr. J.

Johnston .............. 25


Monthly Subscription

Do., for Morpeth.....


1 0 0

0 12 8


27 7 6 11 0 4

10 13 6

Sunderland, per Rev. Dr. Paterson..

19. Birmingham Church, collection from,

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The communication from Blythe has been received too late, and is too long, for insertion. Aug. 12. Southwark-Collection It is not necessary now to prove the importance or necessity of our possessing schools in connexion with all our churches; that has ever been a settled point with all Presbyterians. Our Correspondent mentions that in his neighbourhood the Papists have, through the liberality of a wealthy Romanist, a landed proprietor, (would that our wealthy members would follow the example!) instituted a school under the superintendence of the priest, which is numerously attended, and is made a successful instrument in the perversion not only of the children but also of their parents. This is an important subject, and we hope our correspondents will communicate to us any facts bearing upon it. Our Correspondent from Blythe also states the great destitution of the means of juvenile as well as adult instruction in his neighbourhood, many growing up to maturity who cannot read, and concludes his letter with the following incident, which we give in his own words:

"Some time ago a young woman was, through the grace of God, brought under conviction. Her parents had neglected the education of their child. She desired knowledge, for she was ignorant, and I was desirous of communicating it to her. In order to give her mind a proper bent, and to assist her in her progress heavenward, I offered her for her careful perusal and prayerful consideration, James's Anxious Enquirer.' She hesitated, she looked at me, a slight quiver shook her frame,—a big and bitter tear-drop filled her eye, and with a deep-drawn sigh, she said, "Ah, sir, I cannot read.' Would that the benevolent ladies who commiserate the condition of the Jewish girls in Corfu, had seen that tear, and they would no less pity the condition of the northern poor

"Your faithful Servant,

"WM. O. JOHNSTONE." We are exceedingly obliged to our valued Correspondent at Manchester, (Robt. M'Ewen, Esq.,) for his interesting papers on the "Life

TO OUR FRIENDS AND CORRESPON- and Times of Adam Martindale," lately pub


We are happy to announce that our subscribers are increasing. Still, we shall not be satisfied till we have obtained at least a third more. We hope our friends will actively canvass for us. They will thus do more good than they are perhaps at all aware of.

To our Correspondents we beg to intimate that no communication can be admitted which has not been received prior to the 20th of the month, as by that date, at latest, all our materials must be in the printer's hands. We hope all our correspondents will bear this in mind; and that, above all things, they will study brevity.

We have again to regret that Presbyteries do not send us an account of their proceedings. Has the Rev. D. Lennie been inducted at Glanton? We have heard it rumoured that he has, and that is all we know about the matter.

We have received several communications rather too flattering to ourselves to be inserted, but we are not the less obliged to our friends. The greatest obligation, however, they can confer is to extend our circulation.

Our correspondent (G. B., Stafford,) labours under a most grievous misapprehension regarding the subject of his communication. No partiality whatever has been or will be shown;

per Mr. Wm. Hamilton.... Manchester-Trinity Church collection, per Mr. G. Longmore John Knox, London-Collection....

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66 3 500

£82 7 11

The Synod at its last meeting appointed collections to be made in all the churches on the 10th of August, in aid of the funds of the School Sustentation scheme, and ordered immediate intimation of the sums collected to be forwarded to us, in order to their being announced in the next number of the "Messenger." It is now the 20th of that monththe last day on which we can insert communications, and yet all the sums intimated to us are those given above.

Now, need we say we are disappointed? We are more than disappointed. It is not, however, possible but that a greater number of collections must have been made, and yet if made, we can hardly account for their not having been remitted to the Treasurer and announced to us.

Is it necessary to prove the importance of having schools in connexion with all our churches? Is not that a first principle with the Presbyterian Church? But how can schools be founded or supported in the poorer districts without foreign aid? And is not this the very reason that led to the formation of the School Sustentation Fund?

But should any Church, from any reason whatever, have failed to make their collection on the day specified by the Synod, we entreat them, as soon as this comes to hand, to make that collection. No Church can be excused. lished by the Cheetham Society of Manchester. It is a common cause. Let the sum amount As the publication is in but very few hands, to no more than five shillings, still let a coland the subject extremely important, as throw-lection be made; let the people have an ing much light upon the history of Presby- opportunity of performing this Christian duty, terianism in England, we shall give the and enjoying this holy privilege. Let no one papers, though long, in full. The first of them fear that by making collections for the general will appear in our next number. interests of the Church, they injure their own local funds. The very reverse will be found uniformly to be the case.

The communication from Maryport is too late for insertion. All we can do is to intimate here, that Mr. Harvey intends to visit the south to collect money in aid of his Church. The other parts of his letter, like that from Blythe, ought to be sent to the School-Committee. We must repeat, and will act upon the principle till it be understood by all parties whatever, that no communication received so late as the 20th can be inserted. Parties desirous of appearing in our columns must have their communications forwarded, at latest, by the 18th of each month.

Mr. Murdoch's (Berwick) letter, will appear next month, as also M. D'Aubigné's speech. We are gratified to learn, that 400/. were collected at the opening of St. George's church, Liverpool; of which a short account appears elsewhere. Of the prosperity of this congregation we continue to receive the most cheering accounts. Indeed, such a pastor, supported by such elders, aided by such machinery as exists in that Church, must, through the blessing of God, succeed.

Again we beseech our ministers to urge on this duty. We have no fear of the people. Our only apprehension is that ministers will fail in their duty in this matter. Let it be deemed a sacred duty by all parties to contribute liberally to all the funds of the Church.

Finally, in future we trust that moneys, as soon as collected, will be remitted to the Treasurers, and intimation of the amount transmitted to us. In the present instance the collections for the School Fund should, without loss of time, be sent by Bank or Postoffice order, to the Treasurer, William Stevenson, Esq., 101, Upper Thames-street, London.

In next number we shall insert such sums as may have been then received.

GARMENTS OF THE CLERGY OF ROME.-The garments worn by the clergy of the Church of Rome are all supposed to have a moral and

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