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spiritual meaning; though, certes, they have a somewhat effeminate character and appearance. I shall briefly describe those referred to in the poem.-ALB: an ample tunic, or robe of white linen, worn next over the cassock and amice, and reaching to the feet. It was at first worn loose and flowing, but at present is bound with a sash or girdle, mystically signifying continence.-ROCHET: a lawn garment, the ordinary garment worn in public by bishops during the middle ages; though traceable only as far back as the 13th century. It differs little from the surplice, except having the sleeves narrower, and gathered at the wrists.-CHASUBLE, chasible casula: the outermost garment formerly worn by the priest at mass. When the Roman toga fell into disuse, the panula was substituted for it. The pænula formed a perfect circle, with a hole in the middle to admit the head, while it fell down, so as to envelop the whole person. The Romish Church has altered it much, cutting away the sides, so as to expose the arms, and leave only a straight piece before and behind. The Greek Church retains it in its primitive shape. The old monumental brasses in England show the same form.AMICT, amictus amice: an oblong square of fine linen, worn by priests: it is tied round the neck, ne ad linguam transeat mendacium, and covers the breast and heart, ne vanitates cogitet. It is sometimes called humerale, and is also worn by deacons, sub-deacons, &c., when ministering at the altar. The amict was first introduced to cover the shoulders and neck; it afterwards received the addition of a hood, to cover the head until the priest came before the altar, when the hood was thrown back.MANIPLE, manuple: originally a narrow strip of linen, suspended from the left arm of the priest, and used to wipe his face when perspiring. Gradually it received embellishments; was bordered with fringe, and deco. rated with needlework. In the 11th century it was given to the sub-deacons, as the badge of their office; probably its use was to cleanse the sacred vessels.-DALMATICA: a garment with large open sleeves, worn by bishops and by ladies! It came originally from Dalmatia,and was formerly the characteristic dress of the deacon, in the administration of the Eucharist. It is not marked at the back, like the chasuble, but in the Latin Church, with two narrow stripes-the remains of the clavi, worn on the old Roman tunic. The chasuble was sometimes worn over the dalmatica. In conferring deacon's orders, the bishop clothes the sub-deacon with an amict, saying, "Receive this bridle of the tongue." He then puts the maniple on his left arm, telling him that it signifies the fruit of good works. Lastly, he puts on him the dalmatica, telling him that it is the garment of joy.-COPE (from Ang. Sax. cæppa; a cap, cape, cope, coif, hood): a priest's vestment, fastened with a clasp in front, and hanging down behind, from the shoulders to the heels. It resembles a lady's cloak! By the canons of the Church of England, the clergy are directed to wear this vestment; "but," says Dr. Hook, "out of tenderness to the superstition of weaker brethren," (thank you, Doctor!) "it has gradually fallen into disuse-except on such an occasion as the coronation." N.B.-In a drawing of Queen Joan of Navarre, in the Cotton MSS., she is represented in her coronation robes. Her dalmatica differs little from that worn by Queen Victoria, at her coronation.-STOLE: an ornament worn about the neck of a priest, or deacon, and across his breast; denoting the yoke of Christ, and the cord that bound him."-The War of the Surplice.

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The Benefits we have by our Lord Jesus Christ. By
Wm. Cowper, Minister of Perth.
Exposition of the Ten Commandments.
Sermons by the Rev. George Wemyss.

From ROBERT BARBOUR, Esq., Manchester.
Edinburgh Christian Instructor, 1832-1840. Nine vols.
Campbell's Lectures on Ecclesiastical History.
Butler's Analogy.

Dr. Raffle's Lectures on Practical Religion.
Gambold's Works.

Presbyterianism Defended.

Authentic Report of the Clough Case.
Clarke on the Being and Attributes of God.
Baxter's Reformed Pastor.

Treatises on the Divine Authority of the Old and New

on the Canonicity of the Holy Scriptures.
Dickenson's Letters.
M'Gavin's Protestant.

From Rev. Prof. CAMPBELL.
Lardner's History of Heretics.
Michali Notæ Criticæ in Novum Testamentum.
Vitringa de Synagoga Vetere.

Sturtevant's Preachers' Manual. Two vols.
Mitchell's Presbyterian Letters.

From Rev. THOMAS HALL, Crookham.
Leigh's Body of Divinity.

Brown on Poetry.

Blacklock's Paraclesis.

Christianæ Theologiæ Libri Duo-stuctio M. F. Wendelini.

Grotius de Muri Libero et Merula de Maribus.
Mornæus de Heritate Christianæ Religionis.

Le Clerc's Lives of the Primitive Fathers.
Puffendorf's Whole Duty of Man.
Etchard's Works.

Moyle's Works. Two vols.

Rohaulti Physica.

Joannis Barclaii Argenis.

Poetarum Scotorum Musæ Sacræ. Second vol.
Bishop of Bangor's Answer to the Representation, &c.
Worcester on the Trinity.

Andreæ Riveti Pictavi Commentarius in Psalmorum.
Bishop Lane's Considerations on the Theory of Religion.
Godolphin's Abridgment of Ecclesiastical Law.
Golden Remains of the ever-memorable Mr. John
Hales, of Eton College.

From Rev. T. D. NICHOLSON, Lowick.
Robertson's History of Scotland. Two vols.

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Robert Christie, Esq.

This Society is founded on the most approved principles of Life Assurance, the WHOLE PROFITS being secured to the rOLICY HOLDERS.

The importance of this advantage is apparent from the fact, that at 1st March, 1841, the Society made vested additions, varying from twelve to twenty per cent. on the sums assured, to all Policies of Five Years' endurance, and at 1st March, 1844, a similar vested addition of six per cent.; besides further prospective additions of two per cent. per annum, calculated on the accumulated amount, in the event of their becoming claims before 1st March, 1847, being the next period of allocation. For example-on a policy for 1,000l. effected on 1st September, 1831, there will, if it become a claim after the 31st August, 1846, be 1,348/. 6s. 3d., payable; viz.: Sum originally assured Vested Addition at 1st March, 1841, 20 per cent.

Vested addition at 1st March, 1844

Further additions, viz.

On surviving 31st August, 1844, 2 per cent.

On surviving 31st August, 1845, 2 per cent.

On surviving 31st August, 1846, 2 per cent.

£1,000 0 0

200 0 0 1,200 0 0

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Printed by ALEXANDER MACINTOSH, of No. 20, Great Newstreet, Fetter-lane, London, and published by JAMES MACINTOSH, of No. 12, Seymour-street, Euston-square, at the Office, No. 16, Exeter Hall, Strand, London, by whom communications to the Editor (post-paid) and advertisements are received.-Monday, September 1, 1845. Sold by HAMILTON, ADAMS, and Co., Paternoster-row; and JAMES NISBET and Co., 21, Berners-street. PRICE-PER ANNUM,

Stamped (to go post-free).... Four Shillings. Unstamped Three Shillings. Advertisements received not later than the 20th of each month.

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It may

ADDRESS OF THE COLLEGE COMMIT- | bright era, this portion of the empire has | place of primary consideration on behalf
TEE TO THE MEMBERS OF THE greatly lacked the sound theology, the


DEAR BRETHREN,-Two hundred years ago there flourished in this land a race of Bible Theologians, whose equivalent no subsequent period of English Christianity has produced. They were men of God. They devoted to study, to meditation and prayer, an amount of time scarcely credible in this more bustling age. Mighty in the Scriptures, they had also mastered all that was most valuable in the researches of their predecessors, and their accurate learning was only exceeded by their ardent piety. The sanctity of their character diffused a wide and sacred influence upon their cotemporaries; their profound and systematic expositions of Scriptural truth were frequented by large and intelligent audiences, who grudged no self-denial, and deemed no morning hour too early when thus bestowed: and whilst their affectionate exhortations roused multitudes to flee from the wrath to come, their holy wisdom and experimental skill enabled them to speak words in season to weary, anxious, or declining souls. And the large results of their close thinking, their Scriptural learning, and above all, their hallowed walk with God, still live in the matchless writings of the English Nonconformists.

The greater number of these memorable divines were Presbyterian, and the most gifted among them compiled the well-known documents which, beyond all other human compositions, have tended to consolidate the faith, and preserve the orthodoxy of the Reformation Churches -the Westminster Catechisms and Confession. And although it must be acknowledged, with devout gratitude to the Great Head of the Church, that England has never been without its eminent Witnesses and Evangelists, it must also be conceded, that since the hand of violence struck down the shining lights of that

of the Presbyterian College. systematic effort, and the exalted piety appear to some that a college is a needwhich marked the palmy days of less expenditure, or at the best a premaPresbyterianism. In the peculiar state ture apparatus for a Church of less than of modern society, it will also be al- a hundred congregations. And so perhaps lowed, that there exists no better hope it were-if we meant that our Church for the cause of the Gospel, than in the should never number any more. But well-directed and simultaneous efforts of whilst doors are opening on every side, men who love the Saviour, and under- whilst every large town throughout the stand one another; men who shall pro- kingdom would welcome a faithful minisclaim Christ crucified with the simplicity ter of our persuasion, and whilst the of Thomas Brooks, the affection of fields for our Home-Missions are almost Joseph Alleine, and the pathos of Richard countless; and whilst, on the other hand, Baxter; but who, instead of dispersing no sister Church is able, without serious their strength in insulated and fitful intrinsic loss, to supply our existing conefforts, shall distribute their gifts, and gregations with pastors, the college, withconcert their evangelistic measures, and out which any scheme of Church-extencheer one another's hearts in such meet- sion is hopeless, becomes almost essential ings of the brethren as brought men like as a means of ecclesiastical self-preserBrooks, and Alleine, and Baxter toge-vation. ther.

Whilst, therefore, we rejoice unfeignedly in the successful labours of Christian ministers in other communions, we will not disguise our belief, that nothing can so effectually meet the present crisis in English Christianity, as a revival of the Presbyterian polity, and the Presbyterian pastorate-that polity and pastorate, which in ten years did more to render England a Christian nation, and the English a religious people, than all the discursive efforts of different denominations since. To revive this compact system and this efficient ministry, is the great problem which we believe the Providence of God suggests to us, and to which as a Church, we now stand publicly and solemnly committed. Whilst in number so few, and with resources so limited, our position is as arduous as it is responsible; but we look for the strength and the means to Him who has given us the hope and the desire.

Under a temporary arrangement three theological classes were opened, and as many courses of lectures delivered by the Rev. Messrs. Campbell, Lorimer, and Hamilton, last winter. The attendance

twenty-three professional students, besides as many amateurs, proved that the effort was not premature. The proficiency of the regular students was very satisfactory, and already one who had previously almost completed his studies in Scotland, has been licensed to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of London.

Encouraged by this auspicious outset, the Synod proceeded in April last, to fill up two professorships. The unanimous choice fell upon the Rev. Peter Lorimer, of London, and the Rev. Hugh Campbell, of Manchester; the former being appointed to the chair of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism, and the latter to the chair of Church History. What added much to the Synod's satisfaction in electTo detail the various measures to ing these reverend brethren, was the cirwhich our Church is now resorting in cumstance of their belonging beforehand order to restore with new adaptations the to our own body, and so being thoroughly old Presbyterian agency, is not the pro-identified with all our schemes and intevince of this Committee; but we claim a rests, coupled with the assurance, that in

tianity, we commend the cause to the
liberality and prayers of the true and

Signed, on behalf of the Committee,

WILLIAM HAMLITOSPIE, jun. } Treasurers.


funds then by which our college is to be maintained in efficiency must be obtained, and we have no fear whatever, that obtained promptly, cheerfully, and liberally they shall be. The noble response made by our people last year to the sudden demand that was then made upon them, at the opening of the college, is a proof of the interest they feel, and an earnest of the sacrifices they will make to promote the prosperity of an institution so identified with the honour, the success, the existence of our Church. The second Sabbath of November, we are most fully persuaded, will show by the most conclusive of all demonstrations, that the interest has increased, and that the liberality will be proportionate. We have no fear, we repeat, we never had, of the liberality of our people; but, may we confess it? we are by no manner of means so confident of the active agency of our ministers, elders, and members of Committees. Let a cause be but fairly placed before them, and let but a fair opportunity be afforded of testing their appreciation of its claims, and our people will for the future, as they have done for the past, perform their duty. But it depends upon our office-bearers whether or not this opportunity shall be properly afforded; and we do trust, that on this occasion, we, even we, shall have no ground for complaint.

the range of allied Churches, none could | English Presbyterianism and Home Chris- | funds, it can only regulate expenditure. The have been found more adapted for their respective offices, each now occupying the sphere for which his genius predisposed him, and the labours of a life-time fitted him. A third professorship-Systematic Theology-is indispensable to complete the Theological Faculty; but until it should be seen to what extent the Church is prepared to support the college scheme, the Synod did not feel warranted in making any further appointment; and but for an act of generosity AT a meeting of the College Committee, on the part of the Free Church, for which held at London, on the 16th of September, it we cannot be sufficiently grateful, the was finally arranged that, according to the Theological course of the ensuing session powers and instructions given them by the must have remained imperfect. The Free Synod, viz., to make the necessary arrangements and obtain the requisite party or Church Assembly in May passed a reso- parties to teach systematic theology for the lution renewing the kindest expressions ensuing winter, Dr. Henderson, of Glasgow, towards our body, and besides other va- and Mr. Hanna, of Skirling, should be apluable enactments, enjoining any two mi-pointed to that office. These gentlemen will nisters whom this Committee might select, accordingly come up as soon as the order to repair to London for a period of two in which they are to officiate is finally arranged. We are certain the Church at months each, and give the requisite lec- large will hail with devout gratitude to tures and instructions in divinity proper. Almighty God, the appointment of these two In such a body as the Free Church it eminent individuals to superintend for the was not difficult for the College Commit- ensuing winter the doctrino-theological inour future ministers. tee to find theologians abundantly qua- struction of Our lified for such a service. They addressed their invitation to two of its distinguished members, the Rev. Dr. Henderson, of Glasgow, and the Rev. William Hanna, It was further agreed to secure the services of Skirling; and they have now the ex- of a tutor to give instructions in Latin and treme satisfaction of announcing, that Greek for two hours each day during Session, notwithstanding the inconvenience and to such students as may desire to prepare for sacrifice involved in it, both have acceded future admission into the theological classes, in the hope also that he will make arrangeto the request of the Committee. The ments for conducting their education during Session will therefore be opened in No- the recess; and it was referred to the provember, under the auspices of the Synod's fessors along with Mr. Chalmers, to look professors, in conjunction with their emi-out for a person properly qualified for the nent coadjutors from Scotland.

The Synod has enjoined that the collection for the College shall take place on the second Sabbath of November, and the Committee await with much anxiety the result of this appeal. The donations of last year have enabled the Treasurers to meet all bygone expenses; but it will require a twofold amount of steady con

tribution to maintain the institution even on its present restricted footing, and in order to give it that efficiency which alone will make it worthy of the Presbyterian name, we must entreat a liberality still larger. The Committee would rejoice in being warranted to recommend to the Synod in April next the appointment of a permanent Professor of Systematic Divinity. They are also desirous that some arrangement should be made for the encouragement of such meritorious students as are not in affluent circumstances. And they are extremely anxious that nothing essential should be wanting in the form of books and the other requisite apparatus on which the pre-eminence of an Academic Institution so greatly depends. Earnestly hoping that the response of their brethren may hold out not only a high promise of prosperity to the College, but through it, the prospect of new days in the history of

readers are aware that this appointment is
itself the permanent appointment of a pro-
only temporary, the Synod having reserved to
fessor to the above department.


Mr. Hamilton read a draft of an appeal in aid of the college, which was approved of, and ordered to be transmitted for insertion in the "Messenger," and will be found elsewhere.

The full programme of the course for next Session will appear in our next, at present we merely state that the classes will open on Tuesday, the 4th of October, in the very commodious apartments occupied last winter. Any parties desirous of information, or purposing to attend, are requested to apply to the Rev. Professor Campbell, 16, Exeter Hall, Strand, or at his private residence, 22, Myddelton-square, London.

But it is not only by congregational colWe must have also individual donations, but lections that this cause is to be supported. particularly subscriptions. Our collectors will of course, be very happy to receive annual donations of any amount, from the hundreds of pounds of the opulent, to the single pounds and even shillings of the less wealthy; but happier still to receive the permanent subscriptions of all classes of our members. The demonstrations of Dr. Chalmers have failed to convince, and even his eloquence to enforce, the superiority of regular subscriptions over occasional donations, and yet the Doctor, with that practical sagacity which after all is his most wonderful endowment, has been enunciating and enforcing only what is but a primary axiom, a mere practical truism in the science of economics. nations the most splendid are but a waterspout, which may occasionally inundate your fields, but will much oftener leave them dry and unproductive, while subscriptions, minute in individual magnitude, are the shower, the dew-drops which, constantly falling, irrigate and fertilize. Give us your donations then if you will, and they will be gratefully received, but as they lie beyond the range of calculation, our institutions can never depend upon them. Let us then have subscriptions, which possessing the certainty of a poll-tax, will enable us to form our measures in safety, and monize. make our receipts and expenditure har


We have been delighted to hear from Professor Lorimer, that he has got an efficient Committee formed in Liverpool, and had no doubt he would succeed equally in forming one in Manchester, whither he was just proceeding when he wrote us. The Liverpool Committee entertain no doubt they will be able to furnish 300l. to the college fund this winter, and we are just as certain that Manchester will contribute as it ought still more largely. What will London give?

We trust it is altogether unnecessary, after the truly admirable address of the College Cominstitution to the prayers and liberality of all mittee, to say one word to commend this our people. The importance, the absolute necessity, of the college to our prosperity and even our existence as a Church, is too obvious to need any proof. The whole Church has felt this and has acted accordingly. And the success which has hitherto blessed the institution, leads to the conviction that the Great Head of the Church has owned, and will continue to bless it. But in order to enable the college to accomplish the ends of its institution, and realize the expectations that have been excited, several things are peample, must provide the requisite funds. very day specified, and apprize their people of remptorily demanded. Our people, for exThe most rigid economy has been employed it in sufficient time. If they but do this, as in this as in every other department of our we have already said, we will cheerfully affairs. But even economy cannot create | pledge our word for the people.

We have only to add, that we hope all our ministers will attend to the collection on the


we trust our

divided. It was a time of divisions. Now | tractive preacher. And if they get a good
we are come to another time, another era, the attractive preacher, they have made a good
era of union, where not these different distinc- business of it. The church is filled. But the
tions, but the great unity, Christian unity will poor preacher's health fails. He is ill. He
be the principal thing.
cannot any more preach, and the hearers by
and by drop off, and the benches are empty.
Then the people say to the minister, the busi-
ness is bad, my dear friend, this will not do,
the church is bad, empty, you must
.. go
away-we must have another. And so they
try to have another attractive preacher, and
thus they act. I must say, that is dreadful.
I declare that is to me as bad as the Papacy.
It is just the other extremity. But not the
people only-not the ministry only, but the
people and ministry together in good order

IN regard to the admission of speeches
into our columns, we have laid down the
following rules, which
But, nevertheless, I must say there is a cer-
friends will bear in mind. 1st. In tain something in the different distinctions of
general we admit no speech that has Church government. I am, for my own ac-
appeared elsewhere, and only something count, a Presbyterian. Perhaps had I been
extraordinary will induce us to violate the born in England, I might have been an Epis-
rule. 2d. We admit no speech which copalian-I do not know. But I am a Pres-
does not bear directly on the interests of byterian, not only of situation, but of conviction
and choice. The great thing, it is true, is
Presbyterianism, and particularly on those Christ, but there is certainly an advantage in
of the Presbyterian Church in England. a certain government of the Church. I believe
And 3d. We do not admit long there are in the Church two great principles
speeches, even the following we abridge. which must be maintained; first, order, and se-
Such being our rules in the matter of condly, liberty; order and liberty, and we must
speeches, we feel not only warranted, but try to have a Church government which will
combine these two principles. The order of
required to publish the following speech
government and the liberty of the people. The
of Dr. D'Aubigné, delivered at the pub-free action and influence of all the members of
lic breakfast given to the great historian
of the Reformation by the Presbyterians
of London, on the 20th of June last. It
escapes the prohibition of all our rules,
and comes within the range of their
requirements. The speech is worthy of
Dr. D'Aubigné, and that is the highest
compliment we can pay it.

We have heard him several times in Scotland and in England, and have no hesitation in saying the following is the best speech he

delivered in

this country. May we have grace given us to improve by it! Let us throw out a suggestion. Will none of our generous friends get some thousand copies thrown off for wider circulation? We shall keep up the types for some days to give them an opportunity. We have only further to add, that our report, which was taken in short-hand by the Rev. William Chalmers, is very nearly verbatim, and is, in fact, the best and most characteristic report of any of D'Aubigné's speeches we have yet

seen :

the Church. There are in the Church two
classes of persons. There is the ministry or
ministers, and the people. The ministry has a |
right and the people have a right, and the two
rights must be combined in the best manner,
that the Church may be in a good state. Now,
there are some denominations where there is
but one of these two factors or elements to be
found, or specially one. For instance, in the
Episcopalian system, we find, I believe, very
nearly one only, the ministry, acting. The
ministry is acting, the bishop is acting, but the
people do not act. In this country, there are
some other denominations where the people
are very nearly all, and the ministry, perhaps,
have not action enough. I believe, dear
friends, that one of the most important features
of our Presbyterian constitution, is its com-
bining these two elements or factors of order
and liberty, ministry and people, and it
is only if we combine them in a good manner,
that we can subsist, and extend, and make


that is the thing. Now that I find in the Presbyterian Church-the two are in alliance, and I believe in this is the force of the Church. There was a Presbyterian Church in England, and it became Socinian, but I believe it was because it was never rightly organised. There was no central power. You are now entering on a new field-almost as a new Presbyterian Church, and you must avoid the old dangers, and become firm in faith, and abundant in love and power.

I have seen in my own country some excesses of a popular Government; when Government is quite in the hands of the people, it is excess. We have in Switzerland twenty-two cantons and twenty-two churches, with very different constitutions. Some cantons are democratic, or rather, I would say, In Radical, and they feel something more. one canton, the Church becomes very Radical, and things are going on there that are not good.

The members

I have an

The election is in the hands of the people, and in the main it is a good thing. But the Church and the State are one. of the Church are also the members of the State. There is no difference between a parish and a commune; the members of the one being members of the other. They have not only the election of the pastor, but they have made a law that every five years there shall be a new election; and so, after five years, if they do not like a minister, they may say to him, "Dear friend, go away." excellent friend in that country, a very powerful man, full of the Spirit, a good preacher, and he has been two or three times expelled by that law. He has been called to a church in that country, and it was a very dead Church; but he preached the word with great power, and they liked him very much. Many were converted; but there were others who did not like his success. Habits were altered, fewer went to the wine-house, and there was too much religion for them; and so, at the end of five years, people who never went to church opposed him, and, by a majority of eighty-two to eighty, he was expelled; and thus two men, who had never gone near his church, carried his expulsion. You see what excess may be on that side. There is excess on the side of the hierarchy, when it domineers, and excess, too, when the people domineers. We must go in the good middle way, our Presbyterian way.

There is one thing I very much admired in Scotland, in the Free Church of Scotland, the Sustentation Fund. It is not properly for the money, or for the sustentation which it affords, that I admired it, but for this circumstance, that every minister was not entirely dependent DEAR FRIENDS, I am very happy to be upon his congregation. There is a central now in England. I find in England good power doing something for the ministry, a friends, very kind hospitality, but I am very power of government over the Church-while much rejoiced this morning to be again in there is liberty in each congregation to assist Scotland. I have met in Scotland with such its own minister, and these two principles, the Christian kindness that I cannot see Scotch power of government in the Church, respectafaces without having joy in my heart. Sir, we bility, authority in the name of God, and this are assembled as friends, but not to the honour liberty in all the members of the Church, who of man, simply to the honour of God. Yes, take as much part as possible in the governdear friends, the great thing in the Church is ment of the Church. I believe it is very imChrist, the eternal deity of Christ, the blood of portant, for if we have only one of the factors Christ, the Spirit of Christ in us; and not or elements, the ministry, we come very near only Christ in past times, but Christ presently to the Romish system, where the Church is -Christ present among us. And I believe we the clergy. And indeed there are people in could not meet with any Church if we had not England who talk in this way, but the Church Christ with us. Christ must be present every- is not the clergy. The ministers, the clergy, where. He was with his disciples when in the are a part of the Church, but are not the flesh. But he has said, I am alway with you Church itself. There is a danger there. If unto the end of the world: and so we will do you have a priest, and priestly power, you as the disciples of Emmaus did, and pray, or will soon have formality and superstitions. rather constrain the Lord to enter the house, But go to the other side. If the ministry and be with us, and that all we may say may have no power, and only the people come be glory to Christ, and the result of this meet- into action, I fear the Church will have no ing may be for the advancement of his king order, and perhaps cease to exist, for so many dom, his reign every where in England and excesses will come. I have heard of one on the Continent. I feel I am very opposed country where (it is not in England, and it is to every bigotry, to Episcopalian bigotry, to not in Scotland) some people will say, "We Independent bigotry, and to Presbyterian will build a church." It is an enterprise, and bigotry. I believe the great thing is they form a kind of joint-stock company, and Christianity and every where Christian feeling, they issue shares, each taking some, and and especially in these times. At the these rise and fall in value, are now high and Reformation, three centuries ago, we were | now low. And then they try to secure an at- | times. There is a necessity for order, disci

I believe that is one of the excellences of the Presbyterian Church, and I am sure it is the necessity of the Church in these times that ministers and members alike should have their proper spheres of action in the Church-that ministers, elders, and deacons, be active, and not only ministers do something for religion, but that every member of the Church remember that he is a child of God, and he must bring forward the light of God everywhere. This is one of the great necessities of the

which the word of God would have us show.
I know it is very difficult. For my own part,
I confess I have often failed, and fail still to
this moment. So I will not judge others
wherein I err myself. I have had most diffi-
cult struggles in Geneva, and other places. I
know that human weakness often errs. The
carnal mind comes sometimes in the place of
the spiritual, and we cannot always maintain
ourselves in the true way. But we must try
and do it; we must remember that it is our

the Church in a political way, but not in a theological! It is an abomination, for it is ecclesiastical business, and should be dealt with accordingly. Such words, however, and such expressions, are demonstrative that the Houses of Parliament are no more able to govern the Church. There must be a new government. Before Catholic emancipation it might be possible; now it is possible no more. It must come to that, and if so, in such a body they must have laymen. What, indeed, are the Houses of Parliament? They are laymen. There are some bishops, it is true; still they are, as a body, laymen, and hence they will not give the government of the Church to a body formed only of ministers. There must be laymen there not sent by the Houses of Parliament. The lay element is necessary in the government of the Church. If you will, you have that lay element in the Houses of Parliament; but as they are constituted, it cannot work longer. And, if they constitute a new body for government, and if they have laymen in it, they must be elders, or something very near it. And thus there will be an approximation to Presbyterianism.

On the other side of the question, the Independents will, I think, have to make some change. I was breakfasting the other day with dear friends of the congregational body, and our reverend friend and brother, Dr. Pye Smith, used a very good expression as to what the congregational body should be. It should be like a cluster of grapes-all united together on one branch. Surely that comes very near to our Presbyterian constitution. I believe both Episcopalian and Independent will have to come to a middle way.

pline, and good government, that we may not lose our force, and become corrupt. I believe you, the Presbyterian Church, have a mission in England. I am sure you are fitted very much to meet the necessities of the English people, and I had much joy on coming to England to find the state of the Presbyterian Church in it, and that already it was entering on its mission. You are something to unite all denominations, and perhaps bring a good spirit in everywhere. I found that in Liverpool, and I find it now in London. I say that the Presbyterian Church has a mission or I believe in the progress of Presbyterianism. duty. It is not only for yourselves, or your It is the conviction of my mind that it is a congregations and people, that you are principle which is progressing, and will still prohere. It is for the whole country. Well, gress. I believe that all the different Churches then, if you have a mission in this country, see that we are in the middle place. I will ah! then certainly a mission can be ful- give you an instance that struck me not a filled only by the power of God. When little. In America, they have republished my we feel a special duty lying on us, a "History of the Reformation,' and 100,000 great duty, not only specially in our own copies are in circulation. The Tract Society narrow circle, but of a broad and general of America have published an edition of kind, we must go to the throne of grace to 20,000 copies. This Society is composed of find there the power. I believe we can go members of every denomination, Episcopaon no mission without the prayer of faith, and lian, Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist, &c.; I believe it is what every friend here will feel and they have followed it as a rule to print the necessity of in the present crisis, the im- only books of general Christian interest, but portant time in which we live, of being filled nothing involving their several differences. with the Spirit of God. I speak not of long Well, they come to my "History." They say, prayers-public prayers, I must say, that I did "We would like to publish it-it is important. sometimes find in Scotland to be a little long- We have 120 colporteurs; we can circulate but of the urgent prayers of faith. But there it very widely." But the Episcopalians say, must be zeal and decision; and certainly I must "There are some points we do not like--we say, if I have found in any men zeal, it is in will take them out." And the Baptists say, Scotland. I have been edified by their zeal "There are other points which we do not and force. That is the first thing, but it is like-we will take them out.' And so indeed not all. There is a passage which has often the Society has taken out from thirty to fifty been quoted from God's word, "First pure pages. Well, that edition is published, and then peaceable." Oh, that is an important the Presbyterian Synod has taken it and said, Now, Sir, Presbyterianism is making proword, and I must say, that if I have to choose "It is not a true work-it is a mutilation." gress on the Continent. In Germany, where between purity and peace, between an impure And two Synods have taken rather strong you know there were a few Reformed PresbyChurch where there would be peace, and a resolutions. I think, too strong, as the inten- terian Churches, though the majority were pure Church where there would be some strife, tion was a good one. The design was to cir- Lutheran. Their general organization was I would join the last, because purity before culate it more widely; but the effect has been Lutheran, and they are governed by a conpeace. But I find some people understand that the publication of that edition is stopped. sistory, who, however, are selected by the that word to be thus, "pure not "peaceI hope we can do something towards coming Government, five lawyers, and one clergyable;" but it is pure and peaceable-certainly to an agreement. But I have seen that in- man, and they administer the affairs of the pure before all, but peaceable also; and that I stance to the contrary. We, Presbyterians, Church; but it is, you see, a civil administrathink is important. We must be very strong are in the centre. On the one side we have tion. That is the state until now. The King and firm in principle. Oh! for principle we the Episcopalians, on the other side the In- of Prussia is a good man. He has a difficult can never be firm enough, decided enough. dependents, Baptists, &c. Ours is a strong position; but he is a man desiring in his heart But we must be very kind for men, for per- position, and we must keep it. I believe that the good of the Church. He has assembled sons. Firmness in principle, kindness towards on both sides they will come nearer. For in- all the Churches of the district, for there are men, towards every man. Strong in zeal, stance, the Episcopalian Church, I am per- sixty-three counties or so in Prussia; and the strong in principle, strong in doctrine, but suaded, and I have said it to every one I met, ministers being assembled (according to the rather moderate and mild in expression. I whether layman or bishop, "It is important existing law, he could not convene laymen), find that immoderate expressions give strength for you that all the members of the Church and having them met in sixty-three assemto the foe. If you have an expression too may have more action." I have the convic-blies, the Government of the King of Prussia strong for men, the truth that is presented tion that by and by they will come to it. They has presented to them some questions. loses its force. Powerful truth, but moderate will see that it is only the opposition of the expression has a great force. I believe we laymen that has given a check for the time must attend to that. It is very important for to Puseyism. They will feel that the real the mission you have to fulfil, that there may power of the Church is in the members, and be no reproach. I was yesterday night in a they will by and by give some footing to the very respectable house, and the people knew I members. There may come a time when had just come from Scotland, from the Free what happened in Scotland may happen in Church. "But it is a great pity," they said, England.”~ It would be a shame for a Protes"that there is so much bitterness of spirit in tant Church to be conducted by Roman the Free Church." "I must say," was my Catholics. In all political business they may-Yes. answer, "that I have not found any bitter- give their votes; but a Protestant Church ness there. I have found severity, but I must must be governed only by the members of say I have never found bitterness with my that Church. I am satisfied that Episcopalians friends in the Free Church." "Well," the and Parliament will come to feel this, and persons to whom I was speaking said to me, that a new body must be constituted for the "the Free Church people are very violent.' government of the Church, a body composed "There may have been some occasions when of bishops and ministers, but also of the they were so, but they are not angels," I told laity. I believe the Houses of Lords and them. "They are men, and must feel." But Commons must give up to that body the power if you have a mission in England, you must they have now. They have already an uneasy take away all cause of reproach. Force and feeling on ecclesiastical questions. They do power alone will not avail you. You have re- not like to speak it out; but they say, "We ceived that from God in great measure. cannot treat this or that matter in a theoloPeace, moderation, love; these are qualities | gical way, but in a political." What! govern

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I. Shall some synodical assemblies take place in the Prussian Church? and they unanimously answered-Yes.

II. Shall members of the Church, who are not ministers, be admitted into these assemblies? and they unanimously answered-Yes.

III. Shall there not only be sixty-three assemblies, but a general Synod for the whole Church in Germany? and again they answer


Here you have Presbyteries, Synods, and Assemblies. That is but two months ago. Their answer is not before the King; but I apprehend they will come to that end. German Church will be constituted as a Presbyterian body, and that is of great importance. There is much Popery in Germany, and much Rationalism in Germany, but there are true Christian people great in force and faith; and when they are well organized, we shall see something new in Germany, so this progresses everywhere. You know I am not here for myself. I am come to England and Scotland as a deputy and representative of the Geneva

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