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use policy with the bad, so that you may restrain the soldiers in the bonds of kindness."

But he disgusted his chiefs by confiscating the property they had collected from the people of Maveralnaher, and compelling them to pay it into his treasury; he consulted me again on this occasion, I told him " that the minds of the Turks were narrow like their eyes, that it was requisite to satiate them in order to gain their attachment, and to tie up their tongues."

As he much approved of my advice, he set out for the Desht Kipchak, in order to quell the rebels, and left me in charge of Maveralnaher: he further wrote an agreement, stating that he had divided the kingdom with me in a brotherly manner, but this was a mere pretence to keep me quiet while he was engaged with the rebels.*

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Another of the auspicious omens predicting my future greatness, was this: in a dream I saw the Prophet Muhammed, " on whom be the Grace of God," who congratulated me and said, " in consequence of the support you have given to my descendants, the Almighty has decreed that seventy-two of your posterity shall sit on the throne of Sovereignty." When I awoke, I wrote all the particulars of this dream to my Peer, he replied by letter, "I congratulate you on this "dream, your having seen the Prophet, (on whom be the grace of God) proves "that you will certainly obtain numerous victories, and that many happy consequences will arise from this dream." As the Emperor Subuktageen, in consequence of his pity to a doe, (whose fawn he had caught and released) " was honoured by a vision of the Prophet, who said to him, in recompense of "the pity that you this day shewed to the animal, the Almighty will bestow "sovereignty on your posterity for many generations;' how much more so will " he bestow on you, who through compassion to the Syeds and other inhabi"tants of Maveralnaher, have delivered them from the cruel hands and slavery "of the Jetes; doubtless your descendants shall reign for seventy-two gene"rations." To elucidate the circumstance, it becomes requisite to mention, that, when Tugleck Timur Khān invaded Maveralnaher a second time, he sent me a friendly invitation, I therefore went to meet him, but he broke his promise (of confirming me as Governor of the province), and gave the country to his son Alyas Khuajē, and made me his Commander in Chief (Sepah Salar); but when he saw that I was dissatisfied, he produced the agreement engraven

* See first Design, Institutes.

on steel, between my ancestor Kajuly Behader and Kubyl Khān, wherein it was stipulated that the dignity of Khan should for ever continue in the posterity of Kubyl Khan, and that of Sepah Salar with the descendants of Kajuly Behader, and that they should never oppose each other;* when this agreement was read to me, in order to comply with its contents, I accepted the appointment of Commander in Chief; but as Alyas Khuaje had no talents for governing, and permitted his soldiers to extend the hand of rapine, the inhabitants of Maveralnaher came to me, and complained that the Jetes† had carried off nearly one thousand of their virgin daughters from Samerkand and its neighbourhood, and that the orders of Alyas Khuajē were not listened to by his followers; again a number of the Syeds of Termuz came and complained to me, that the Turkish soldiers had carried into captivity seventy of their brethren and children, all descendants of the Prophet (on whom be the grace of God): on hearing of this my honour was roused, I pursued the plunderers, defeated them, and recovered the captives; on this account the Jetes bound up the loins of animosity against me, and carried their complaints to Tugleck Timur Khān, and wrote to him that I had raised the standard of rebellion, in consequence of which he issued an edict for putting me to death, which edict fell into my hands; it was at this time that I had the dream above mentioned.

Another happy omen was this, my Peer wrote to me, he had seen in a vision, that the Almighty had appointed me his treasurer, and that the keys of the treasury would be consigned to me by his Vizier Mustafa; this good news exalted my ideas, and induced me to expect success from fate.

Another time when I was very much annoyed by the oppressions of the Jetes, and knew not what to do, I received the following letter from my Peer.


"The supported of the Lord, may God continue to protect him; I have seen

❝ in a vision, the messenger of the Lord of all worlds, who has promised to make his vicegerent, and support you, and therefore be not afraid, nor despond, "for he is with you."


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I was much rejoiced by this letter, and became strong of heart, although I was in daily expectation of the arrival of Tugleck Timur's edict to put me to death; and when the edict did arrive, (the Saint) Amyr Kelan, sent me this verse of the traditions of the Prophet, " Flight is proper for him who has not the power to oppose." I therefore fled to Khuarizm, with sixty horsemen, and wrote a description of my situation to my Peer, and received the following answer to my letter;" may God protect Abul Munsur Timur; let him lay down these four * See second Design, Institutes, page 25. † See Note to page 9. See Zyn Addeen (ornament of religion), page 7.

"rules for his conduct, that with the arm of magnanimity he may be successful " and prosperous through life, as is recorded in the traditions.

"1st. Be determined in whatever you undertake, place your undertakings " on faith in God, and do not relax your exertions.



"2nd. Invest yourself with the robe of honour, and permit not fornication or adultery to be committed in your dominion: It is related that a Crane once saw “in her nest, a young Raven associating with her young ones, and for several days and nights she permitted it to remain, at length a number of Cranes col"lected and tore the owner of the nest to pieces with their beaks and claws: the "honour of a man should far exceed that of birds, especially that of Princes, "which should ever protect the respectability and reputation of their subjects.

"3rd. Do not neglect consultation, prudence, and caution, for every dominion "which is void of these is soon overturned.

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"4th. It is a tradition of the illustrious Khalifs, that stability is better than 'perturbation, therefore endue yourself with bravery and magnanimity ;-grace "be with him who follows the true direction."*

Another presage of my good fortune was this, a celebrated Astrologer waited on me, and delivered a plan of my Horoscope, stating that at the time of my birth, the planets were in so favourable and auspicious conjunction as certainly to predict the stability and duration of my good fortune and Sovereignty; that I should be superior to all the Monarchs of the age; that whoever were my enemies should be subdued, and whoever were my friends should be prosperous; that I should be the protector of religion, the destroyer of idols, the father of my people; that my descendants should reign for many generations, and that they should be prosperous as long as they continued to support the Muhamme◄ dan religion, but if they should deviate therefrom, their dominion would soon be annihilated.


About this time I also had an extraordinary dream, I thought I was seated on the sea-shore, and that I had in my hands a large net, which I dexterously threw, and caught a number of crocodiles and other large fish; this dream I interpreted thus, that the net was my dominion, which shall spread over the face of the globe, and that all mankind will become subject to me.†

* Here he relates another instance of his good fortune, in escaping from Aly Beg, which appears in the History. See page 37 of the Institutes, therefore omitted here.

+ Two other Anecdotes have been passed over, as they will again occur in the History.

Another circumstance which strengthened my faith in the Divine aid, was this; at the time that I approached the Jete army, under Alyas Khuajē, and had drawn up my own forces, and put on my armour, whilst I was considering the plan of the battle, the hour for prayer arrived; after having made my devotions, I again looked at the plan of the battle, and then lay down on the spot where I had said my prayers; soon after, I dreamt that I heard a voice say, “Timur, victory and success is thine:" when I awoke, I could not see any body, nor were there any of my servants or attendants near, I was therefore convinced that the voice was the voice of an angel, (Hatif Ghyb) or invisible spirit, which I had heard, and in gratitude, prostrated myself, and returned thanks to God.

From amongst the encouraging circumstances that occurred, was this; at the period that I invaded Fars, Shāh Munsur came unexpectedly on me with five thousand horse, I called out for a spear, but none of my attendants were in readiness; suddenly I saw a Spearman in the form and dress of an Arab at my side, who gave into my hand a lance, and said, "O God assist Timur," at this instant Shah Munsur fell from his horse, and (my son) Shah Rukh came up with him and wounded him. When I made inquiry for the Arab, he was no where to be found, but I subdued the province of Fars.

Another extraordinary event was this, at the time that I dispossessed the Ruler (Valy) of Balkh of his country, my Peer wrote to me, " may the victorious Timur consider this note as auspicious; the Guardian Angel of Khorasan has given the key of that country into your hands, it is requisite that you shall deliver that province from the injustice of Sultan Ghyās Addeen." I was rejoiced by this intelligence, and immediately set out for Khorasan, and having crossed the Jihun, I subdued Ghyās Addeen, and took all his stores and treasures.

Another of the proofs of Divine aid which I received, was this, Syed Mahmud Gēsūderāz✶ waited on me, and congratulated me that Amyr Syed Aly Hamdany (another Saint) had deputed him to tell me, that the Holy Prophet had taken me under his care and protection, in order that I might propagate the faith of Islam in the extensive region of India: on receipt of this message, I bound up my loins in the service of Amyr Syed Aly, because previous to this time while I was at Samerkand, he had used very harsh expressions towards me, which had very much affected me, but for which he afterwards apologized. I was however afraid that he was still incensed against me, till I received this message, when I was convinced that these people (the Saints) do not harbour malice, I therefore recovered my spirits.

Soon after this notice, I began to destroy the temples of India, and to give * See Appendix V.

currency to the Muhammedan religion in that country; when I destroyed the temple of Kukel, which was one of the greatest in that region, I broke the images with my own hands, previous to which the Brahmans brought me several loads of gold, and requested me to spare their gods; I said to them, " I will break your gods, to give them an opportunity of performing a miracle by healing themselves." Amongst the images, was one the size of a man, which they begged me not to break, and even threatened me with his vengeance, saying, "amongst the miracles, which the original of this performed, was, his getting sixteen hundred women with child in one night." I replied, "the cursed Satan debauches several thousands of persons in a very short period, therefore this miracle is of no weight."

Another extraordinary circumstance was this; whenever I undertook any thing, I cared not whether it was deemed a lucky or an unlucky hour, but placing my faith on God, I commenced it, yet the Astrologers always affirmed that whatever I had undertaken, the hour had been propitious for the event.


Another very encouraging presage, was this; when Tugleck Timur Khān advanced into Maveralnaher, I was doubtful whether I should go and meet him; I dreamt that a Falcon came and sat on my hand, and a number of cattle gathered around me ;* among the cattle was a Lion, which I seized, and put a collar on him: the interpretation of this dream was thus explained; viz. The Falcon was the emblem of good fortune and sovereignty, the cattle signified abundance and prosperity, the Lion typified the Monarch, on whom I should place the collar, and subdue him; being thus encouraged, I went and met Tugleck Timur Khān.†

When I invaded Fars, I saw in a dream, that a number of bottles of wine had been presented me, and that I broke them in pieces with my sword, by which means I much injured the sword; the interpretation of this dream was, that I should suffer some misfortune. It was shortly after this that Shah Munsūr attacked me suddenly with five thousand horse, and although I completely defeated him, nevertheless at that time my troops were defeated in the desert, by

* The late Tippoo Sultan probably took the idea of his dreams from this work. See the Sultan's Letters published by Colonel Kirkpatrick in 1811.

† He here relates two other dreams respecting his brother-in-law, Amyr Hussyn, and Tukel Behardur, the circumstances of which belong to the History, and will be related.

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