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brotherly manner, till at length Byan Selduz, from excess of drinking, suddenly bade adieu to this world.

I then said to Hajy Berlās," shall we divide the portion of Selduz between us, or shall we give it to his son, so that his troops may remain faithful, and things may go on as usual;" but he would not listen to this, and seized on some part of the share of Selduz, in consequence of which violent disputes took place between the followers of Selduz and him.

When this intelligence reached the ears of the surrounding chiefs, each of them exalted the standard of Sovereignty, but I continued to govern my own country quietly and with regularity.

About this time, several disturbances broke out in Maveralnaher, on which occasion both the Nobles and Plebeians of Turan came to me and explained their situation, saying, there is now no King in this country (and the petty Tyrants harass us), we are resolved to abandon the country, till some person is placed on the throne of power (who can protect us). On hearing this, On hearing this, my ambition was rouzed, and I wished to take possession of the whole kingdom, and become absolute Sovereign of it, but I found that I could place no reliance on the support of the people. I therefore thought it better for the present to keep on terms with the different chiefs who had independence, and endeavour to throw the ball of discord among them, so that, by degrees, I might bring each of them under my subjection; but to effect this, I saw that, patience, perseverance, and (divine) aid were requisite.

During this same year, which was A. H. 760, I began to take measures for extirpating these petty princes of Maveralnaher (Mulouk al Tuāef), and I wrote to each of them a separate letter, requesting them to join me, and that we should divide the country in a brotherly manner between us two. They all gave a favourable answer to my letters, but none of them were aware of my correspondence with the others.

Having thus excited the ambition and cupidity of each of them, and having agreed that whatever country should be subdued, was to be equally divided between the parties, they individually bound themselves with the girdle of fealty to me. This was in fact a very important affair, for Elchy Bugha Selduz had raised the Standard of Royalty in Balkh ; Amyr Bayezyd Jelayr had taken possession of Khujend; Khuajeh Ayzdy had established himself in Shumerghānat. The Kings of Badukhshān were contending with each other in the mountains of that province. Hy Khusero and Altaja Berdy had seized upon Khutelan and Arheng, and Khizer Yusury was in possession of all the country from the bridge of Tashkund to the vicinity of Samerkund. Now, to take the kingdom from such chiefs,

each of whom vied in splendour with the other, was indeed a difficult undertaking, but I resolved to do it by setting them at loggerheads.

I therefore wrote to Elchy Bughā, that the inhabitants of Badukhshān had complained to me of their rulers, and had requested me to proceed thither to relieve them, that I had determined to do so, and, if he would join me, that country should be annexed to his dominion: otherwise, as it was my duty to administer justice to the oppressed, I should do every thing in my power to assist them. When he received my letter, he immediately drew out his army to attack the Kings of Badukhshān, and they forthwith sought refuge with me, and offered, if I would deliver them from their peril, they would make over the whole country to me, and become my subjects.

I also wrote to Hajy Ayzdy, the Ruler of Shemerghan, that the province of Balkh being now unoccupied, I had sent an army to take possession of it; but that if he had any ambition to partake of the conquest, he might become my partner in this business; this rouzed him, and he immediately invaded Balkh. When this intelligence reached the ears of Selduz, he returned from Badukhshān, and came to Hissar Shadman and Balkh.

And the Kings of Badukhshan bound the girdle of fealty around their loins, and promised that whenever, or wherever, I should summon them, they would attend me with all their followers.

When Selduz entered the province of Balkh, Hajy Ayzdy of Shemerghān drew out his army and engaged him; but, being defeated, sought refuge with me; having thus made him one of my dependants, I drove out Selduz, and restored Shemerghan to him.

This same year, Amyr Hussyn, the grandson of Amyr Kūrgen, who sought the inheritance of his grandfather, marched from Cabul, with all his tribe and followers, and came towards Maveralnaher; he also wrote me a letter requesting my assistance; as his sister was one of my wives, the sinews of my affection were put in motion.* I therefore encouraged him to advance towards Maveralnaher. This in fact was the greatest error I committed during my whole reign, for I thus admitted into my friendship a person of vile disposition, proud, and miserly, but I being then ignorant of his character, advised him to invade Badukhshān, which he did, and made himself master of that country.

In this year, 760, a son was born to me; as he was my first, I named him Muhammed, after the Prophet, upon whom, and upon his descendants, be the Grace of God; and, as it occurred at a period when I was very successful, I considered it an auspicious omen, and added Jehangyre, (Conqueror of the World). I * See Note, page 42.

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also gave a grand feast, to which all the principal inhabitants of Maveralnaher came, except two of the Nobility; the first was Amyr Bäyezyd Jelayr, the other, Amyr Hajy Berlās.

I however did not shew any displeasure, but acted kindly to all their dependants and followers, which induced them to take my part; in consequence of which the tribe of Berlas, which was under the command of Amyr Hajy, but who were disgusted with his conduct, repaired to me; also his wife's father, ambitious of getting the command of the tribe for his grandson, by which he himself would get the power into his own hands, attempted to assassinate him but the Amyr having discovered the plot, sent the scoundrel to hell; he then came to consult me whether he should destroy the family; I told him, that to take revenge upon children would be highly improper, and only cause poverty and distress.

In this same year, A. H. 760, Amyr Hussyn got possession of the whole kingdom of Badukhshan, and took prisoners three of the Princes of the country, heirs of the former kings, whom his minister, Mahmud Yusury, very unjustly put to death, but the revenge of their blood seized hold on the skirts of Amyr Hussyn; and their heirs obtained legal retaliation on him, as will be hereafter mentioned.


When I reached my twenty-fifth year, Tugleck Timur Khān, the descendant of Jengyz Khan, who was absolute Sovereign of the Desht Jitteh, advanced towards Maveralnaher with the intention of subduing it, and encamped on the banks of the Khujend river, from whence he sent me an Imperial edict to summon all the chiefs to his presence.*

Hajy Berlās being much frightened, consulted me what we should do in regard to opposing Tugleck Timur. I said, "it is advisable that we should wait on him in person, but let us send our tribes and hordes to the south side of the Jihūn, towards Khurasan, that after he has entered Maveralnaher we shall see whether he intends to remain; if he stops there, he will then lay the province waste; but if he does not intend keeping possession, we will attend his court." After much argument it was at length agreed that I should wait on Tugleck Timur with my own people, and, by my ingenuity, endeavour to preserve the country from being plundered, because " policy is often superior to the sword." It was also determined that Hajy Berlās should proceed towards Khurasan with the Tribes and * See page 15, printed copy of the Institutes.

Clans, whilst I remained behind to protect, if possible, the country; but, if not, to follow him.

In consequence of this determination, I gave the blessing to Hajy Berlās, and sent him off with all the tribes and hordes, but escorted them two or three day's journey; after which I returned alone, and took up my residence at Kesh.

Amyr Bayezy having explained the order to his Tribe, marched with them to meet Tugleck Timur.

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At this time my Father Teragay was taken very ill: and, in order to attend on him, I was obliged to postpone my visit to Tugleck Timur; but when the decreed hour had arrived, my honoured parent resigned his life, and bade adieu to the world. I buried him in an honourable manner in the vicinity of Kesh, the burying ground of the Holy men (Aulia). After this event all the principal inhabitants of Maveralnaher waited on me, and by agreement said, "We are twelve thousand Cavaliers, we wish you to accept the Sovereignty: and if you permit, we will read the Khutbēh in your name, for it is written in the Rules of Government,' that whoever has twelve thousand Cavaliers true and faithful to him, should he not raise the Standard of Royalty, ought to be reckoned inglorious." As I knew that this proposal of theirs proceeded entirely from fear, (of Tugleck) and that no dependence is to be placed on stipendiaries or needy followers, till tried by experience, I merely contented myself by assuring them there was no danger, and consequently no necessity for this imprudent measure.

At this time I received a second summons from Tugleck Timur, I therefore explained to the chiefs and principal persons of Maveralnaher, that the coming of Tugleck Timur was an unexpected calamity, and it would be better, as the Jetes are noted for avarice, to satiate them by presents, and induce them to refrain from murder and rapine.*

Soon after this, the first division of the Jetes, commanded by Mahmud Yusury, entered Maveralnaher in great force, with the intention of plundering and laying waste the country, and encamped at Heraz, I therefore assembled my own people, and taking with me the principal personages, and a number of curiosities and valuable presents, I proceeded towards the Jete army.

When I arrived at Heraz, I met the general Mahmud Yusury, and we embraced on horseback; we then proceeded to his tent, where he entertained me; after dinner I presented him a number of valuable articles, and requested that

* These Jetes are not to be confounded with the ancient Getē, they were unconverted Turks, and at this time inhabited the country of Jetteh or Deshti Jitteh; Timur afterwards calls them his countrymen, in fact they were the followers of the descendants of Jengyz Khan. See also printed copy of the Institutes, page 25.

he would halt where he was, while I should proceed to the next division of the army, and visit the other officers; I accordingly marched forward to the Heravul, and in the plains of Keshem, I waited on the Commander in Chief (Amyr al Omrā) and other Generals; they all came forward to meet me, and received me in the most gracious manner, and praised me exceedingly; I deceived them also by rich presents, and prevailed on them to halt in the desert till I should have paid my respects to the Khan.

The three generals agreed to my request, considered my visit as an auspicious omen, and wrote in my favour to their master.

At length I paid my respects to Tugleck Timur, while encamped on the banks of the Khujend, and the chiefs of the tribes and principal persons of the country had the honour of saluting him, (Kūrnish) and of making him their numerous offerings. When the Khan was informed that the generals of the advanced divisions had taken valuable presents from the inhabitants of Maveralnaher, he was incensed, and ordered all the presents to be confiscated, and deposited in his treasury. This order gave great offence to the officers, and they vowed vengeance against him.

At this time, intelligence was brought that the officers of the army in Jetteh had raised the standard of rebellion against Tugleck Timur; he therefore consulted me, saying, "shall I march against the mutineers in person, or shall I send an army to subdue them." I replied, " in going yourself to the desert, there is only one danger to be apprehended, but by sending an army, and not going in person, there are two* to be feared:" the Emperor was much gratified by this advice, and in order to subdue the mutinous officers, returned towards the desert.

And he gave me the command of the (Tuman) tribe of Kerachār, and the government of Maveralnaher, with permission to return; in consequence of which, all the people of that country, both great and small, soldier and citizen, considered themselves under great obligations to me, and offered up thanksgivings and prayers for my success, in recompense for my having (through the grace of God) averted such a calamity from them. Amyr Jelayr, who with his people had also paid their respects to the Khan, came and joined me. Thus I became absolute master of all Maveralnaher; I then compelled all the nomade tribes to conform to my regulations, and I took up my abode in the city of Kesh, called also Sheher Subz or verdant city.

* First, that his army might be defeated by the mutineers, and second, that they might join them. † Lat. 39,20 North.

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