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This would make a walk all around the shoe that a mouse might travel on. It was frequently the case that awls could not be obtained. Then they would take a common table fork, break off one of the tines, and sharpen the other for the awl. Shoes made as I have described, with the upper leather hair side out, not more than half of it removed, and without any blacking, would certainly look very odd. There can be little doubt that the above is a fair description of the first tanning and shoe making ever done in Sangamon county.

When the first settlers came there were no stores filled with dry goods, as there are now, and if the goods had been in the country there was no money to buy them. The only way families could supply themselves with clothing was to produce the materials and manufacture their own goods. Those who first came from the Southern Statesas most of them did-brought their cotton, flax and hemp seed, raised the fibre and did all the work. They at first picked the seed by hand, carded it on hand cards, spun it on wheels designed for spinning wool or flax, wove it into cloth, and made it into garments for men and women's wear. That which was designed for underclothing was prepared without coloring, as a matter of course, but for outer garments, and particularly ladies' dresses, something better was required. Some among the earliest brought a little indigo, madder, and same other drugs, but for greater variety and economy, a large number of barks were used, such as black walnut, butternut, several varieties of oak, hickory, etc. When peach trees grew the leaves were used for making one of the brightest colors. Some of the cotton yarn, dyed with each of those colors, skilfully arranged in weaving, and made into dresses, looked remarkably well. Some of the old boys now living say that the young ladies of their time, thus attired, looked equally as charming in their eyes as those of the present era, with their flounces made of goods from the looms of Lyons and the shops of Paris, do to our young men. Flax and tow 'was never colored, and was mostly used for men and boys' wear in the summer. A tow shirt, with a draw string around the neck, and reaching below the knees, was a full dress in summer for boys up to ten or twelve years of age. Some of our most substantial farmers were thus attired in their boyhood days.

Elisha Primm says that his father built a cotton gin in 1822. He says that from the time the first settlers came into the county until the winter of the "deep snow,” 1830 and '31, this was as good a cotton country as Georgia. He says that this was attested by men familiar with cotton growing in the Southern States. Elisha attended the gin built by his father, which was run by horse power. The people brought cotton to be ginned, from all distances up to twenty miles. Sometimes it would accumulate on his hands until he would have as much as 3,000 pounds. The price for ginning was a toll of one pound in every eight, after the cotton was ginned. It sold from 12 to 163 cents per pound, and occasionally higher. After the "deep snow" the seasons appeared to shorten, and cotton was generally bitten by the frost before it had time to mature, and cotton raising was finally abandoned. It seemed as though the seasons were overruled so as to be adapted to the wants of the pioneer settlers, when there was no other way for them to be supplied with clothing, but when roads were opened and capital came in, bringing merchandise, the seasons gravitated back to their normal condition.

FIRST PRODUCE MARKETED:-Mr. William Drennen believes that the first produce marketed in the county was on Sugar creek, in the Summer of 1818. George Cox sold half a dozen small green pumpkins to an Indian for twelve and a half cents.

This note was written while I was standing on the spot, a few yards north of the Sulphur Springs, south of Loami, where once stood a sycamore tree in which A. E. Meacham took a ten foot rail, held it in a horizontal position against his waist, and turned entirely around inside the tree. It was about eighteen feet in diameter outside, and was long used as a wigwam by the Indians. The entrance was at the east side. It was safe when there were only Indians in the country, but some vandal, claiming to be civilized, set fire to it and burned it down.

The Sulphur Spring spoken of above, bubbles up at the foot of a hill near Lick creek, and in its natural state, when animals approached it to drink the water, was a quagmire, but the early settlers made an excavation, eight or nine feet deep, and walled it up, so that the water flows out over the top of the wall, clear and pure. Soon after it was thus improved two old topers, on a very hot day, visited the spring, taking with them a jug of whisky, intending to have a good time laying in the shade near by, drinking their whisky, and for variety, taking an occasional sip at the sulphur water. One of them undertook to cool the whisky by holding the jug in the water, and while doing so let it slip from his grasp. To cut a forked limb from a tree and make a hook

of it would be too much work. In order to rescue the jug, the one who let it slip consented that the other should take him by the heels and let him down head foremost. The whisky was secured in that way, at the imminent risk of drowning one or both of the men. It must have been liberally watered or it would not have sunk.

There are at least one hundred and fifty grave yards and burial places in Sangamon county, and nine-tenths of them are so much neglected that, so far as marking any particular locality or grave, the following lines, taken from a Scottish grave yard, are peculiarly applicable:

"In this church yard lies Eppie Coutts,

Either here or hereabouts;

But whaur it is none can tell,

Till Eppie rise and tell hersel."

The first death of a white man in Sangamon county was that of an Indian ranger. The Sulphur Spring near Loami was known to the Indians, and was very early a camping ground for the whites. When the settlements had not extended farther north than the vicinity of Alton, Indians, according to their custom, killed some of the frontier settlers, and were pursued by some Rangers. While camped at the sulphur spring one of them died, and was buried by his comrades on a beautiful knoll near the spring. It was known to the very earliest settlers as the grave of the Indian Ranger, and was the nucleus of the present Sulphur Springs Cemetery. The land was entered by Jonathan Jarrett, who intended a small part of it for a cemetery and church purposes, but died without making a deed. A regular company has been organized, according to law, and it is now handsomely fitted up and well cared for. There ought to be a monument over the grave of the Indian Ranger, to show that it was the first burial of a white man in the county.

EXPLANATION.

The names of early settlers, or heads of families, in LARGE LETTER; Names of the second generation in ITALIC CAPITALS; third, in CAPITALS; fourth, in SMALL CAPITALS; fifth, in Italics.

A.

ABEL, ROSWELL, was born July 23, 1785, on Sharon Mountain, Litchfield county, Conn. Three brothers by the name of Abel came from England about 1750. One of them settled in Connecticut, one in Virginia, and what became of the other is unknown. Jonathan, who settled in Conn., brought up a family of five sons and two daughters. His son David was the father of the subject of this sketch. David Abel, and two of his brothers, William and Andrew, were Revolutionary soldiers. William settled

in Canada after the Revolution, and brought up a family there. This branch of the family has lost sight of Andrew. David was born on Sharon mountain, married and lived on the same farm until four children were born, and then moved to Washington county, N. Y., where six children were born. Each brought up families. David Abel presented the gun which he carried through the Revolution, to his son Roswell, with instructions to present it to his son, if he had one, but if not, to a brother's son. He has it yet in his possession, at the home of his son Roswell P., to whom he bequeaths it. The brass breech bears the inscription "Liberty or Death," every letter of which is yet distinct.

Roswell Abel, whose name heads this sketch, was married Oct. 22, 1807, to Betsy Mason. She was born Oct. 22, 1790, at Fort Ann, Washington county, N. Y.

Her father, Coomer Mason, was a Revolutionary soldier, also. He had two brothers, Shubal and Hail, who fought at the battle of Benington. Roswell and Betsy Abel had three children, born at Granville, Washington County, N. Y. They moved to Springfield, Ill., arriving July 15, 1836. Of their children

LIZETTE, was born December 4, 1809, married Oct., 1829, in Essex county, N. Y., to Calvin Peabody. They came to Springfield in 1838. They had five living children, namely: CHARLES P., born Feb. 25, 1837, married April 5 1866, to Jane Cheeseman. They have three children, HARRY, IDELLA L., and MARY. HELEN, born Jan. 28, 1835, married Oct. 24, 1865, to Amos Atwood. They have two children, HELEN M., born Jan. 18, 1867, and EMMA C., born August 14, 1869, and reside near Farmington, Dacotah county, Minnesota. JOHN C., born March 13, 1843, married Feb. 4, 1868, in Enterprise, Mo., to Emily Kinsman. They have four children, BURTON, FRANKLIN, WILLIAM and HARRY, and reside in Brookfield, Mo. SARAH E., born in Sangamon county, married July 11, 1857, to Dr. Orlando Lent. They had one child, CHARLES J. He died Nov. 4, 1874, in his 17th year, and Dr. Lent died while on duty at Paducah, Ky., Military Hospital, in 1863. His widow married T. M. Elliott, and resides near Grantsville, Linn county, Mo. EDWIN R., born Dec. 12, 1844, enlisted Dec. 14, 1863, in Vaughn's Battery 3d Ill. Art. He was married Jan. 24, 1867, in Missouri, to

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ROSWELL P., born June 30, 1815, in Washington county, New York; came to Sangamon county, Illinois, with his parents in 1836. Married September 30, 1846, at Greencastle, Pa., to Margaret J. Loose. She was born there, Jan. 22, 1820. They reside at Rochester, III.

Roswell Abell and wife have been married more than 69 years. They reside with their son, Roswell P., at Rochester, Sangamon county, Illinois.

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ABELL, JEREMIAH, born in 1770, in Rockingham county, Va. He was there married to Hannah Aiken, who was born in 1771. They emigrated to Adair county, Ky. Mr. Abell was the owner of some slaves, but he liberated them in Kentucky, and moved with his family to Sangamon county, Ill., arriving in 1829, in what is now Auburn township. Their daughter

PENELOPE, married in Adair county, Ky., to Samuel McElvain. See his name. They come to Sangamon county with her parents.

Their son, Dr. J. R. Abell, resides at Taylorville.

Řev. Jeremiah Abell was regularly educated for the ministry, preached many years in connection with the Presbyterian church, and received the title of Doctor of Divinity. After coming to Illinois he severed his connection with the Presbyterian church and united with the Methodists. He moved, about 1846, to McDonough county, and died there in 1852.

ADAMS, JAMES, was born Jan. 24, 1783, in Hartford, Conn. Harriet Denton was born Jan. 31, 1787, in Hartford, also. They were there married about 1809, and moved to Oswego, N. Y., where they had five children. They moved to Springfield, Illinois, arriving in the spring of 1821, soon after the place was declared to be the county

seat of Sangamon county. Of their four living children,

LOVENIA E., born May 3, 1813, at Oswego, N. Y., married, in Springfield, to Peter Weber. See his name. They both died in the north part of the State. She died Sept. 5, 1838.

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CHARLOTTE B., born May 2, 1815, in Oswego, N. Y., and died Jan. 10, 1832.

LUCIAN B., born Dec. 10, 1816, in Oswego, N. Y.; married in Springfield, March 14, 1847, to Margery A. Reed, who was born July 9, 1824, in Williamsport, Penn. They have four children. JAMES L., born Jan. 22, 1848, in Spring. field, graduated in a commercial college in Chicago, and is employed in a railroad office in Vallejo, California. ELDORA J., ENOLA A. and HARRIET L., reside with their parents in Springfield. Lucian B. Adams studied law and obtained license to practice in 1840. For twenty years he discharged the duties of a justice of the peace, and the greater part of that time acted as police magistrate, U. S. commissioner and notary public. He is now U. S. commissioner.

VIENNA M., born July 10, 1818, in Oswego, N. Y.; married in Springfield, to Charles G. McGraw. See his name.

James Adams was a lawyer, and engaged in practice when he came to Springfield, in 1821. He was elected justice of the peace in 1823 or 4 and was elected successively for many years. He took part in the Winnebago and Black Hawk Indian wars of 1827, and 1831 and '2. He was elected Probate Judge of Sangamon county, and died in office, August 11, 1843. His widow, Mrs. Harriet Adams, died August 21, 1844, both in Springfield.

ALEXANDER, THOMAS, was born about 1768, in Ireland, and his parents came to America when he was about four years old, landing at Charles

ton, S. C. Lynna Goodlett was born Oct. 11, 1780, in Greenville District, S. C. They were there married, and had three children, all of whom died under eight years. In 1806 they moved to Christian county, near Hopkinsville, Ky., where they had two children, and moved to Sangamon county, Ill., arriving in Oct., 1828, three miles east of Auburn. In 1829 they moved to what is now Chatham township, south of Lick creek. Of their two children,

79

MARY ANN, born in 1810, in Kentucky; married in Sangamon county to John L. Drennan. (See his name.)

DAVID, born Oct. 3, 1814, in Christian county, Ky.; came to Sangamon county in 1828; married March 13, 1833, to Catharine Darnielle; had 14 children, all born in Sangamon county, six of whom died in infancy, and LYNNA died at 13 years. Of the other seven, JOHN T., born Dec. 25, 1835, enlisted on the first call for 75,000 men, April, 1861, for three months, in Co. A., 2nd Kansas Cavalry, served full term, and enlisted Nov., 1861, in Co. D., 2nd Mo. Art., for three years. Reenlisted as a veteran Jan., 1864. He lost his right hand April 13, 1865, at St. Charles, Ark., by the premature discharge of a cannon, while firing a salute on hearing of the surrender of the rebel forces under Gen. Lee. He now (1873) resides with his parents. DAVID S., born Nov. 20, 1842, enlisted August 13, 1861, in Co. B., 30th Ill. Inf., for three years; served until August 9, 1862, when he was discharged on account of physical disability, at Memphis, Tenn. He was brought home, and, after a lingering illness, died, March 10, 1866. CATHARINE, born Dec. 20, 1844; married May 29, 1862, to Lafayette Beach. (See his name.) Had one child, CHARLES D. HIRAM, born March 30, 1847; enlisted March 14, 1864, in Co. C., 11th Mo. Inf., for three years. Served until July 14, 1865, when he was discharged on account of physical disability. He was married March 9, 1873, to Mary M. Van Doren. They reside five miles southwest of Chatham. WILLIAM, born Oct. 1, 1849; married March 14, 1872, to Emma Price, and reside in Chatham township. MARY BELLE and CYRUS reside with their parents, six miles southwest of Chatham, on the farm where the family settled in 1829.

Thomas Alexander died Dec. 18, 1835, and his widow died August 12, 1844, both in Sangamon county.

ALEXANDER,

HENRY,

was born June 10, 1802, in Fleming county, Ky. His father moved to the adjoining county of Bath when he was a child. He was married June 24, 1827, to Polly Gragg, of Nicholas county, and lived in Bath county until 1833, when he moved to Montgomery county. They had four children in Kentucky, and moved to San

gamon county, Ill., arriving Oct. in what is now Rochester townshi1, 1854, four children were born. Of their Allen, orth

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JESSE F., born Dec. 10, 1828, Bath county, Ky., married in Sangamo county, Ill., March 4, 1852, to Nancy A. Hendrix, who was born April 22, 1829, in Fleming county, Ky. They had children; one died young. LUCRETIA, their second child, born June 26, 1855, married March 12, 1874, to James A. Walker. The other three, LAURA, GEORGE and REBECCA reside with their parents, near Appleton City, St. Clair county, Mo.

HIRAM, born in Kentucky; married in Sangamon county to Eliza Hendrix. They have seven children, and reside in Jefferson county, Iowa.

LUCINDA A., born in Kentucky; married in Sangamon county to Isaac Groves. (See his name.) Their daughter Susan married John W. McClelland. (See his name.)

WILLIAM G., born in Kentucky; married in Sangamon county to Julia McIntyre. They have four children, and reside near Illiopolis.

JAMES O., born in Sangamon county; married Sarah Ham. They have three children, and reside in Champaign county.

REBECCA and HENRY H., (twins) born in Sangamon county.

REBECCA married John W. Smith, had four children, and she died in 1870. Two of the children died also, near Williamsville.

HENRY H. married Emily Sargent, and resides in Illiopolis.

POLLY S., born in Sangamon county; married Benjamin Keck; have three children, and reside in Illiopolis.

Mrs. Polly Alexander died August 25, 1868, and her husband, Henry Alexander, resides with his children.

ALEXANDER, JOHN S., was born Sept. 24, 1793, near Lexington, Ky.; married Mary Simpson, who was born April 16, 1799, in Fayette county, Ky. They were there married, and had four children. The family moved to Sangamon county, Ill., arriving in the fall of 1826, in what is now Fancy creek township, where six children were born. Of their children,

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