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soon as it makes its appearance; for the name of the first kingdom being given, as soon as the second kingdom arises, its name must be known. It is as easy to identify objects by the numbers they bear, as it is to identify them by names upon them. These four great kingdoms are numbered severally, by four numerals in categorical or chronological succession, beginning with number one, and proceeding regularly onward in the consecutive order of one, two, three, four. The names of the four kingdoms are to be found, with the numbers they bear in prophecy, the name of the first in the series being given. If we number four consecutive letters of the alphabet, one, two, three, and four, and state that the first in the series is A, every one knows that number two will coincide with the letter B, and that B is the name of number two, and so C and D will, in like manner, coincide with numbers three and four. And just so the Medo-Persian empire must be the name of the second kingdom in the series presented by Daniel, since the first in the series is named Babylon, because the Medo-Persian empire was the next in order to Babylon chronologically. How any one could mistake so plain a mode of identifying the four kingdoms is hard to divine, unless we allow that they were judicially blinded.
Media and Persia were originally provinces of the Assyrian empire, and in the days of Cyrus they were united in one monarchy, and overturned the Babylonian empire; and of course this was the second empire intended by Daniel, since it removed the first and raised itself upon its ruins. It was to be inferior to the Babylonian empire. This may be understood in the sense of
being less extensive in territory, or inferior in moral force, in both of which it was inferior to the Babylonian kingdom. "Neither Cyrus, nor any of his successors, carried their arms into Africa and Spain so far as Nebuchadnezzar is reported to have done."-(Newton.) Dr. Prideaux says, the kings of Persia “ were the worst race of men that ever governed an empire.”
The two arms of the beast, may properly represent the two kingdoms of Media and Persia conjoined; the silver, being less valuable than gold, may represent the moral inferiority of the Persian empire to the Babylonian.
THE MACEDONIAN EMPIRE - BELLY AND THIGHS OF BRASS.
Text.-"This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass."
Interpretation."Thou art this head of gold. And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth."
In the vision we now see three parts of the image; the head, the breast and arms, and belly and thighs; these are composed each of a different metal, and each metal represents a different kingdom. Now, as the gold head represents the Babylonian, and the silver breast and arms represent the Medo-Persian kingdom, the brass must represent the third kingdom; and the interpretation says the third kingdom was of brass, and that
it should bear rule over all the earth. We have then three great marks, by which to identify the name of the third kingdom: 1. It was to be the third in the order of the four empires. 2. Its character was to differ from the other three. 3. It was to bear rule over all the earth. 4. It was finally to exist in two parts. With these four marks the Macedonian empire agrees, and no other empire does, and therefore it must be the empire predicted. For it is infallibly true, that perfect coincidence of events with prophecy is a perfect fulfillment of prophecy.
Coincidence First.-Alexander the Great subverted the Persian empire and founded the Macedonian on its ruins, so that the third kingdom in chronological order from the Babylonian, inclusive, that appeared in the world, was the Macedonian. It is plain that these four several empires could not rise simultaneously into their fullness of strength, since all were to occupy the very same territories. Each successor was, therefore, to overthrow its predecessor, to make room for itself.
Coincidence Second.-Bishop Newton says, the Macedonian empire was fitly represented by brass, for the Greeks were famous for their brazen armor, their usual epithet being, the brazen-coated Greeks.
St. Jerome in commenting on this point, says, "they may rightly be said to be of brass. For among all metals, brass is more sonorous, tinkles loudest, and its sound is diffused far and wide, and so it shows not only the fame and power of the kingdom, but also of the Greek tongue." While these things may have had some influence in determining the name of brass to the Macedonian empire, we think that more extensive qualities.
were indicated. The gold of the head indicated the refined character, and splendor, and value of the Babylonian empire; and the silver the inferior value and splendor of the Persian power; and the brass, being baser, yet stronger than gold or silver, may indicate a baser moral character of government, but of greater energy and capabilities in war. The Macedonian empire being compared to the belly and thighs, shows not only its position chronologically, but appropriately denotes its beastly sensuality. Alexander's moral character was that of the vilest and most lustful sensualist on the page of history, and his kingdom took its cue from its founder. The moral history of the Seleucida and Lagidæ, or Syria and Egypt, which coincide with the two thighs, is one that might, in licentiousness, outvie the manners of Sodom.
Coincidence Third.-The third kingdom was to bear rule over all the earth. The term all the earth has a variety of meanings, but generally signifies only a very large portion of the world, but more especially the civilized world. Alexander commanded that he should be called, "king of all the world," not that he literally ruled every individual man, woman, and child on earth, but that his kingdom was so large as to be commonly spoken of, in that age, as embracing all the world. His kingdom comprehended Europe, Africa, and Asia as largely as any empire ever did, except the Roman.
Coincidence Fourth.-The later existence of the third kingdom was to be marked by a division into two branches. This is indicated by the two thighs of brass. One kind of metal indicates only one kingdom, prophetically, or one dynasty. The gold indicates but
one kingdom, the silver, though divided into three parts, the breast, and two arms, nevertheless indicates prophetically but one compound kingdom, and the same must hold good of the brass. As the image expresses chronology, from the head downward, the thighs must represent the later stage of the kingdom of brass, just as the arms at the upper part of the breast indicate the duality and union of the Medo-Persian empire, in its early history. As the thighs were less than the belly, they by this indicated that these two divisions of the kingdom would be less extensive than the kingdom in its first organization.
Now, the Macedonian empire, soon after the death of Alexander, was divided into four parts, at the heads. of which were Cassander, Lysymachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus. But out of these four, but two divisions at length remained; these two were those of the Lagidæ and Seleucidæ, reigning in Egypt and Syria. Newton says, "their kingdom was no more a different kingdom, than the parts differ from the whole. It was the same government still continued. They who governed were still Macedonians. The metal was the same, and the nation was the same; nor is the same nation ever represented by different metals, but the different metals always signify different nations. All ancient authors speak of the kingdom of Alexander and his successors as one and the same kingdom. The thing is implied in the very name by which they are called, 'the successors of Alexander.' There is one insuperable objection against. the kingdoms of the Lagidæ and Seleucidæ being a different one from that of Alexander, because if they are not considered as parts of Alexander's dominion, they