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horn should terminate. Expositors have never noticed them; but Daniel gives them. He says: "I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them, until the ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom."
Here two distinct points of time are mentioned, which are some distance apart; for, in addition to the separateness of them in this sentence, the prophet shows us that the ancient of days came sometime before the kingdom was possessed; and also shows that the ancient of days conquered the beast before the kingdom of the world was possessed by the kingdom. It therefore follows that the three and a half times must also have a double ending.
Our discovery shows that three and a half times have from two to four distinct lengths. Two of them are certainly applicable here, and the others may possibly be; and these two we mention. The first is 1,451 years and 17 days long, or 529,984 days; the second is oneseventh less, and 1,243 years and 277 days long, or 454,272 days.
10. The little horn was also to be a political power. The text says, "they shall take away his dominion to consume and destroy it unto the end." The term dominion implies authority, and the fact that he was to more stout than his fellows," indicates that he was to exercise superior authority as a secular ruler.
11. The dominion of the little horn was to be in Europe. This follows from this fact: the head of the beast represents the head of the kingdom, and the head
of the beast, or Roman empire, was altogether in Europe. As, therefore, the ten horns were confined to Europe, the little horn is confined there also, because all were in the head of the beast.
We have now given all the points by which to identify the little horn; we proceed to identify it with the papal power in Europe.
Coincidence First.-The little horn, we have seen, was to rise in advance of the ten kingdoms, and of course prior to the year 356, for, in that year the first of the ten kingdoms arose. Now, it so happens, that the Roman patriarchate was joined with the patriarchates of Constantinople, Antioch, and others, and made up the great Roman church of Christians. Each of these patriarchates had its own well-defined limits, and the patriarchate of Rome had its own jurisdiction separate from all other jurisdictions. To each of these patriarchates was assigned the control of its own ecclesiastical affairs; and each was amenable to the church head, or emperor, and not one to another. The emperor was head of all the churches, in name and in fact. There has been a world of disputation about the time when the Pope was made head of all the churches. If this point had been settled to the satisfaction of the parties, nothing would be gained by it that would interpret the prophecy; for nothing is said about the universal headship of the Pope throughout the Roman empire; but simply the headship of the little horn in Europe, or among the ten horns, is all that is referred to. Now, the Pope never was made head of all the churches in the Roman empire. In the days of Justinian a decree was passed to the effect that he should bear that title; but. in the first place, Justinian did not
have jurisdiction over the original Roman empire, for the Western empire was far gone in its decadence in his day; and, in the second place, Justinian retained all power over the church in his part of the old empire, in his own hands, and the Pope only enjoyed a delegated power, for which he was responsible to the emperor. This subject has been reviewed, within a few months past, by the Royal Society of Literature.
It was agreed that the theories of Mr. Elliot, and Mr. Faber, making epochs in papal universal supremacy in the days of Justinian and Phocas, were not sustained by history. They affirm, that the power of the papacy was far greater before these dates than for some time subsequently.
They say that, "the eastern emperors gave the title of universal bishop to the patriarchs of Constantinople, while they maintained their own autocratic supremacy; and the western emperors, on the other hand, fully admitted the spiritual claim, but withheld the specific title." "If Justinian intended to confer exclusive powers on the papacy, yet those powers had already been conferred on it by Theodosius, A. D., 380, by the exertions of Leo the Great, and by the decree of Valentinian III." "It is clear that Justinian held that the imperial sanction was necessary to impart the power of law even to ecclesiastical ordinances." "Again, the character of Justinian as a legislator, is against it, (the supremacy of the Pope). Of his own will he drew up a complete code of laws for the universal church, entering into all the minutiæ of doctrine, discipline, &c. Such a ruler may have disregarded, but almost certainly did not intend to promote the power of the Roman bishop."-(Epochal
Periods Papal History.) With these statements we cordially agree, for they are exactly accordant with our own deductions from history. We now quote from Eusebius, proving that the Roman patriarchate was not above any other in authority, and that Constantine was head of the churches, and no one else, except by delegated power.
"CANON VI. Of the distinguished honors which were decreed to the Chief Bishops in Ecclesiastical Government.-Let the ancient usage prevail of Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis, that the bishop of Alexandria have jurisdiction over all these provinces, since this is the custom with regard to the bishop of Rome. In like manner at Antioch, and in the other provinces, let the churches preserve their privileges. It is very clear that if any one be made a bishop without the consent of the metro-politan, the great council has decreed he ought not to be a bishop."
This decree of Constantine clearly shows that all final authority was vested in himself, and that the bishop, or patriarch of Rome was not president over the other patriarchates, and that he endorsed the acts of the Council of Nice. The truth of the whole matter of the papal power in Europe, is this: the church was united to the state in the year 325, A. D., on the 19th of June, on the thirteenth of the kalends of July; * and Constantine
*We place church and state union on the opening day of the Council of Nice, because it was on that day that the first great ecclesiastical assembly met by order of the imperial decree; and in the morning the emperor appeared in the assembly, and in an oration, proclaimed formally the powers he conferred upon them in the state. He stated, impliedly, that the decisions of that assembly should be
was a priest, and was the real head of the church, and controller of it, and the supreme legislator, executive, and judge in it. The church was divided into large districts called sees, or patriarchates, and the district, or patriarchate, of the Roman bishop comprehended all of Europe. Each patriarch controlled as supreme executive, legislator, and judge, in his own great district, and was responsible to the emperor, and not the bishop of Rome; and no independent control, free from imperial oversight, was ever given to any bishop, or patriarch, in the Roman empire. The Roman patriarchate was, however, more honorable, influential, and wealthy, than any other, and accumulated greater power, subsequently. A claim to supremacy was made by the Roman bishop, but was resisted by the other patriarchs, and a controversy and severance of the Greek and Latin churches, was the result; and the contest still goes on between them about it, and will yet be the ruin of Rome.
Neither in law nor fact, was the Latin church ever made head of the church throughout all the patriarchates by an imperial decree of the Roman empire.
The power of the Roman See was greatly augmented
respected as law in the empire, by imperial sanction; and from that day to this that speech he made has been the understood basis of church and state union. He proposed to settle church differences, and enforce unity of faith; "hoping, (says he,) by MY INTERFERENCE, a remedy might be applied to the evil, I SENT FOR YOU all without delay."
The various decrees of that beginning of iniquitous councils, were sanctioned by imperial authority; and on the first day of the council was formally begun a system of ecclesiastical despotism under which millions have suffered martyrdom. It was the first formal meeting of civil and ecclesiastical power in union.