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term "they" shows that the rider represented a vast body of people. Their killing one another represents war among themselves, or civil wars. These were to be a consequence of taking religious peace from the earth. Now, if we look at the cause of civil wars in the western empire, we find they were generally of a religious character, and the wars have been almost without limit.
6. The Rider.-The man on the white horse represented the social organization of his religion; and the seven stars represented the ecclesiastical polity of the churches; and so this red, or bloody religion, has its polity, or ecclesiastical government, represented by a man, or rider. The church, after its union with the state, was, in polity, a great ecclesiastical despotism; but it had no supreme magisterial authority given it in the state, at first, but afterward it became the civil ruler of Europe, by usurpation.
7. “And there was given unto him a great sword." A sword is a symbol of magisterial authority; it represents a destroying executive power, and, also, war and slaughter by the civil arm.-Isa. xxxiv. 5; Ezek. xxi; Lev. xxvi. 25; Rom. xiii. 4. "For he (the civil magistracy) beareth not the sword in vain, for he is the minister of God, a revenger, to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil."
The corrupt, or Roman religion, in Europe, existed, for a long time, solely as a politico-ecclesiastical power, but afterward it received the civil sword, and it was a most powerful one; for it existed as the dominant power in Europe for more than two centuries. It destroyed thousands of thousands; it mustered the great crusades, and lorded it over God's heritage, with a mighty and vengeful hand. This power was to extend, by the symbol, over the whole west; and so this power,
chiefly manifested in the west the station of the second. beast. We have now shown a perfect and full coincidence between the second seal and the western church; and, of course, we have shown a complete fulfillment.
THE THIRD SEAL-MOHAMMEDANISM IN THE SOUTH.
"And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo! a black horse, and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. And I heard a voice, in the midst of the four beasts, say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine."
As these seals opened in chronological order, the subjects they disclose must occur chronologically. The first seal began with Constantine; and Justinian, in the early part of the second century afterward, fixed the whole establishment, represented by the red horse, upon a permanent foundation. The black horse must, therefore, represent a subsequent spiritual power, and the next great religious power that arose was the Mohammedan, or Saracenic. We shall criticise each point of this seal carefully.
1. "A Black Horse."-A horse symbolizing a religion, a black horse must designate its moral character, since color designates moral character. "Black represents, in ancient prophecy, affliction, disaster, anguish." -(Symbol. Dict.) A black horse would, therefore, represent a destroying power, that would greatly afflict with anguish, as did the locusts, which also represent the Saracenic power.
2. "He that sat on him." This represents the ecclesiastical polity of the religion.
3. "Had a pair of balances in his hand." A balance is used to weigh things, and, of course, refers to the demands of conformity to the standard weight or measure of this ecclesiastical government, for the balances. were in its hand, and it did the weighing according to its own standard.
4. "A voice from the four beasts." As these represented the Israel of God, the voice is a declaration from it, and relating to it, or an order from God's providence.
5. "A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny." Provisions were cheap at this rate, and many expositors have said so; but others say it means famine: the first are correct. For in the locust vision, the people who had the seal of God, were to be spared from devastation, and the corrupt Christians, only, were to be tormented. "They should not hurt the grass, nor the earth, nor any green thing." This coincides with plenty of corn, and barley, and grapes, and olive trees, or oil and wine. Let it also be remembered that the balances did not measure out the corn and barley, for they were among the four beasts, or pious Israel. The whole, therefore, teaches, that among the true Christians there would be no attack by the black horse, but only among the false Christians.
6. "See thou hurt not the oil and the wine." Now, these terms, and the corn and barley, may, if used as symbols, represent the choice people of God, who were to be preserved. As, however, a literal accomplishment is found, it is likely that both were intended; indeed, the preservation of the one would be attended naturally by the other. If we now look for a coincidence to this power, we shall find it only in the Mohammedan fanaticism.
Coincidence First.-" A black horse symbolizes an afflicting and disastrous religion. Every body knows
that the Mohammedan imposture was one of this very character.
Coincidence Second-This religion was to have a well organized ecclesiastical polity. Such was the character of the ecclesiastic organization of Mohammedanism, that it has had the tenacity to adhere together for ages.
Coincidence Third.-This religion was to bring every one to its own exact standard. Such was the character of Mohammedanism. It demanded exact agreement to its doctrines, or death. Abu-Beker, who, on the death of Mahomet, succeeded to his great authority, set out for conquest, and to convert the world by the sword and fire. His charge to his chief commander was couched in these words, "As for those members of the synagogue of Satan who shave their crowns, cleave their skulls, unless they embrace Islamism, or pay tribute." Death or Islamism was the watchword of the Saracenic host.
Observe, that the balances had nothing to do with the measuring of the corn, barley, wine, and oil, for they are not measured in balances, but in liquid and dry
Coincidence Fourth.-The church of God was to remain intact, or, as the corn, and barley, and wine, and oil, in security. Now, the great body of the true evangelical Christians were found in the interior, and northwestern portions of the empire, and in Britain; and these countries were not seriously affected, and never overcome by the Saracens; while all of the great body of the corrupt Christians suffered terribly from the Saracens, for near two hundred years.
Coincidence Fifth.-The agricultural interests, among the true Christians, were not to be desolated by the invasion of the black horse and his rider. And none of the countries, where the true witnesses of God were most
abundant, were invaded by the Saracenic armies. Spain, Italy, and the southern and south-western coasts of Europe, where the red horse had dominion, were invaded, and their inhabitants awfully scourged.
Coincidence Sixth.-The station of the third beast was on the three parts of the south, and the scene was to be in that direction. Now, the attack of Mohammedanism was in the cast of the southern part of the Roman world, and thence extended all along its southern border, including all Africa and south Europe, and Spain, or the west portion of the south.
There being, therefore, a full coincidence between the Mohammedans and the fourth seal, in the time of its rise and all of its characteristics, we have a perfect fulfillment.
FOURTH SEAL-DEISM AND FRANCE.
"And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see. And I looked and beheld a pale horse; and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth."
1. "The fourth seal." This represents, chronologically, another prophetic era in the religious and political world.
2. "The fourth beast." The station of the eagle was on the north parts, corresponding to Dan and the two tribes on the right and left of him.
3. "A pale horse." Here, another religion appears, and its moral character is represented by a pale color. "Pale color signifies mortality and affliction. It is a