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to keep up with the sun. Their year, and that of Moses, seem identical in origin; and if his was so intercalated as to equal solar time, and thus to suit his system, we must suppose that he adopted it for general use; but if it was not so intercalated, he must have remedied its deficiency. Had it not approximated as near to solar time as a year can be made to do, his system would have become deranged by it, and hence, he must have adopted such a year, because the demand was imperious. But the nearest that a year of days can approach to the solar year, is to allow 365 days to three years successively, and give 366 days to the fourth. From the considerations, then, that the Mosaic law demanded a year as near to the Julian as is the solar, and that Moses knew of a year of 365 days long, it is a legitimate conclusion, that he intercalated one day in every four years, as his system imperiously required. The history of the Julian year is, that it was brought to Rome from Egypt by Sosigenes, and adopted by Julius Cæsar as the Roman year. But it is likely Sosigenes obtained it from books or traditions, rather than from observation. The famous astronomers of Greece and Rome, and other nations, were not able to ascertain the number of days of a solar year, nor to approximate closely to it; nor did ancient astronomy afford remarkable facilities for any correct knowledge on the subject. The fact, then, that a year of 365 days was known as early as Moses and Noah, is presumptive of a direct revelation on the subject. Indeed, as Moses gives the account of the deluge, and the time of its continuance, by immediate inspiration, and not from books, the revelation of the days and months of the year is certain.

Lastly. If prophecy is found to be fulfilled in years of this kind, it will confirm all our views indubitably. We

have now seen, that all Hebrew time was divided into weeks, whether days or years, or years of years; and that a part of all their time was sacred time; and that the year was of two kinds, the sacred of 364 days, and the secular of 365 and 366. We now take another step, and will show that they had full and abbreviated time.



We have already seen that the Hebrews had weeks of years, and we know that 70 weeks of years, or 490 years, will not fill the demand which the fulfillment makes, that they should equal 564 and 603 years. To these periods, we know they must be equal, from the absolute nature of the case. Now, as 70 weeks are less than 603 years, it is a plain case that a certain amount of time, not expressed by the 70 weeks, must be understood as connected with them, and that this must be added to them in order to fill the demand. It is also plain, that this time to be added, must be added in accordance with a clear and well defined principle. The next question, then, is, What is the principle? We reply, that the principle is this, That spiritual time is to be added to these weeks; that it is not expressed in them; and that the weeks are weeks of secular time. The weeks are, therefore, abbreviated weeks, and represent full time, but do not express it. We must, therefore, add spiritual or rest time to the weeks, in the proportions in which it actually existed in all Hebrew time, and then we shall reach the periods coinciding with the 564 and 603 years; and having done this, we not only show a fulfillment, but

the fulfillment incontestably verifies the correctness of our interpretation.

A secular week will, it is obvious, contain a less number of days than a full week, which includes the Sabbath or Sabbatic year, and in order to get the full length of a Sabbatic week or jubilee, consisting only of secular time, a proper proportional of sacred time must. be added to it. Because, during the existence of fortytwo secular years, seven spiritual or rest years must also have transpired. It may be here observed, that in all Christian countries the rest days, such as Sabbaths and holy days, are unknown in law as days. So that a legal year is composed of not over 312 days, and generally, of not so many. To obtain then the solar time which transpired during 312, or less legal days, we must add in the uncounted, but understood, Sabbaths and holy days. Of this nature the seventy weeks partake; they are weeks of legal time, to which the Sabbath, or holy day time, must be added, in order to ascertain the full solar time that passed during their existence.

Besides the seventy weeks, there are other examples. in scripture where abbreviated years are used instead of full ones. Thus, Moses and Paul both say it was 430 years from the Abrahamic covenant to the exodus; while Moses, in another place, shows that it was at least 603 years in full, from the covenant to the exodus. The book of Kings says that it was 480 years from the exodus to the foundation of the temple; while the books of Joshua, Judges, and Acts, show that it was over 600 years. Now, in each of these cases, both accounts must agree, because they are both inspired. The only way in which they can coincide is, by considering the shorter periods as consisting of secular time, and the longer, of both spiritual and secular time. These examples confirm

our position with regard to the seventy weeks being abbreviated or secular time only. The position we here assume is also most completely sustained by the literal Hebrew text, which mentions the seventy weeks.

*In the phrase "seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, " &c., the English words "are determined" express the figurative sense of the Hebrew word NECHTAC, for which they are rendered; yet the word determined, in its etymological sense, coincides with the literal sense of nechtac; for it signifies limited, cut short, abbreviated, decided, &c. The word NECHTtac, which stands in the Hebrew text, and is translated "determined" in our version, literally signifies cut short, cut, cut off, abbreviated, &c., and, figuratively, it means decreed, divided, determined, &c. In the Septuagint, NECHTAC is rendered into Greek by the word sunetmethesan, whose primary meaning is to cut, to cut off, to abridge, to abbreviate, &c. In the Vulgate NECHTAC is rendered by the words "abbreviata sunt," which signify abbreviated. Here we have the fourfold testimony of four different languages, or rather the testimony of the most distinguished lingual scholars who have lived during the space of two thousand years, that the words of Gabriel to Daniel conveyed distinctly the notion that the seventy weeks were abbreviated weeks of years. Mr. Prideaux contended against this notion, doubtless, because it disagreed with his theory: but his argument is inadmissible; for it is in direct conflict with the signification of the word nechtac as laid down in the lexicons, and also with such a multitude of unbiassed scholars, who were more likely to be correct. In the

*We are indebted to Prof. SHELTON, of Union University, for assistance in this criticism.

Vulgate, the passage of the prophecy under consideration is rendered thus: "Septuaginta hebdomades abbreviatæ sunt tuum populum," &c.; which, being literally translated, reads thus, "seventy weeks abbreviated are unto thy people." The early fathers, the Romish doctors, and a vast class of learned men, have approved of this rendering for ages past; and he who rejects it, must possess either uncommon erudition, or remarkable assurance. We maintain, therefore, that the literal meaning of the text teaches that our position is fully correct; that is, that the seventy weeks were of the abbreviated kind, and did not include Sabbatic years or rest time, but demanded their addition.



Having shown that the seventy weeks must equal 564 and 603 years, and, also, that in the text they are abbreviated weeks, to which holy time must be added, we will now add the amount. The basis of this addition must be the relative proportion existing between sacred and secular time, as laid down in the Mosaic law. The sacred time is of two or three kinds, one consisting of Sabbath days, or holy days and of Sabbatic years. The Sabbath days are in the proportion of one day to six secular days; the Sabbatic years are in the proportion of one to every six. But, as one-seventh of all the Sabbatic years is composed of Sabbath days, it follows, that Sabbatic year-time would amount, in forty-nine years, to oneseventh less, in the aggregate, than would the whole number of Sabbath days in the same period; that is, in

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